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How to buy a NFT collectible asset – the collector’s guide to purchasing non-fungible tokens for fun and profit.

How to buy a NFT Garbage Pail Kids NFT

What is a NFT?

NFTs are the new hot item and many are wondering how to buy a NFT collectible or if NFTs are even worth the trouble. For the newcomer, everything about NFTs seems odd. Even the name, non-fungible token, sounds like a mushroom. But when you think about it, NFTs make about as much sense as any other collectible. After all, we’re will to pay big bucks for a 2×4-inch paper card with the picture of an athlete on it. It’s all premised on supply and demand and like everything else blockchain, the collectible market for NFTs has shot through the roof with some NFTs selling for, gulp, millions of dollars.

NFTs, or non-fungible tokens (aka Niftys or Crypto Collectibles), are one-of-a-kind digital assets that are typically purchased with cryptocurrency. Imagine works of art or trading cards but digital. The assets are created and stored on blockchain and available in your digital wallet along with all your cryptocurrencies. Here’s how to buy a NFT collectible.

How to buy a NFT collectible

How to buy a Geek Slop NFT Trading Card - Roswell #1

You can buy and sell NFTs on a specialized marketplace. Once owned, you can trade them, use them in games, build collections for profit, or showcase them in your public NFT inventory. And since they are digital, rather than keeping your collectible at home locked in a safe, you can securely carry them with you everywhere you go, tucked safely away in your digital wallet.

NFTs range from working digital games to collectible “cards” like CryptoKitties, Garbage Pail Kids, or Blockchain Heroes. But NFTs, like cryptocurrency, are still harder to buy than they should be. The technology will mature over time, to the point where buying NFTs (and crypto) is as easy as getting money from your ATM. For now however, you’re probably going to need a guide to understand how to buy a NFT asset.

Step 1 – Set up a cryptocurrency wallet

Geek Slop NFT Survival Series trading card front

To begin, you will need a digital wallet to securely store the NFT. There are dozens of crypto wallets to choose from but unfortunately, for now, wallets are limited to what type of digital currency they can store. When it comes to NFTs, digital wallets are even more limited. Since the WAX blockchain is by far one of the most active (and affordable) blockchains for NFT transactions, we’ll use the WAX Cloud Wallet (WCW) for our tutorial.

Go to https://wallet.WAX.io and create a new account. The WAX Cloud Wallet is easy to create. You can sign up using your Facebook, Twitter, or Reddit account. If you use a social network to register, once the WAX account is created, edit your profile and set a new password. Cryptos can be worth a lot of money – too much to rely on a social network to control the login to your crypto wallet.

Once registered, you will be assigned an odd-looking account name. It’ll look something like this:

c.gb2.wam

This will be referred to variously as your account name, username, or WAX address. It’s viewable by the public and used not just to login to your wallet and NFT marketplaces, but as an address you give to others during NFT trades or transfers. The .wam extension indicates it’s a WAX cloud wallet account.

Purchase cryptocurrency that you will use to buy a NFT

Now that you have a digital wallet that handles WAX, you need to put funds in it that you will use to buy NFTs. The currency for our wallet is “WAX”. You can buy WAX with a credit or debit card or transfer it from another account. We’ll use the Simplex payment processing system for our example (you’ll typically be given an option of which payment processing service you wish to use for the transaction).

How to buy a NFT collectible - first buy WAX

Simplex will ask for the WAX address you wish to transfer the funds into. This is your WAX account name, the one that looks like this:

c.gb2.wam

You don’t need to purchase much WAX. Ten bucks or so will work. You can always add more later or if you purchase too much, convert it into a different cryptocurrency or sell it for cash when you no longer need it.

Note that in other markets, you can purchase NFTs with Ethereum crypto too. However, processing fees for Ethereum have made it cost prohibitive. At the time of this writing, you would pay more than $40 transaction costs just to purchase a ten-cent digital NFT trading card. With a more efficient crypto like WAX, you pay pennies, sometimes even fractional pennies, to purchase digital assets.

Visit a NFT marketplace

Now that we have crypto to use to purchase our NFTs, we need to head to a NFT marketplace to find an asset to buy. There are plenty of NFT markets to choose from but Atomic Assets has a well-known hub called AtomicHub that trades off WAX cryptocurrency. From AtomicHub you can browse and purchase NFT products.

Visit https://WAX.atomichub.io and login to AtomicHub using your WAX login. Use the website’s menu to browse and search NFT products. Geek Slop partners with 3rd parties to offer a variety of NFT trading cards. Here’s a screenshot of the back of a Geek Slop NFT trading card.

1 Roswell Crash

Here’s what the NFT listing looks like on the AtomicHub marketplace.

image 1

In the marketplace listing, you will find the asset name and unique ID as well as the owner of the asset. Note the mint number. In this example, the maximum number of assets of this type that can be created is 100,000. At the time, only five have been created and this one is the 5th item of the five.

Collections and Series are simply means to organize NFTs. For instance, Geek Slop has multiple NFT trading cards that are part of the alienseriesb series.

Note the properties, Transferable and Burnable. Transferable means the asset can be traded or sold again. The original owner typically takes a small percentage of the sales (e.g. 7%). Burnable means the asset can be burned or permanently destroyed. In this instance, it works just like it would for a paper trading card. The NFT can be completely erased from existence. However, as the owner of a NFT, there really aren’t many reasons you’d want to do this. In truth, other than allowing the creator the means to destroy their own NFTs, it really just adds a bit of randomness to the total number of collectibles available for a given asset.

The price of the NFT is of course, in WAX cryptocurrency. In this example, the price of the NFT is 4 WAX which at the time equates to $.59 cents. When you make the purchase, the WAX funds will be automatically deducted from your wallet.

NFTs can contain metadata too. Metadata attributes are attached to the NFT and used as datapoints. Here are the attributes behind the Geek Slop NFT. The ID is the “number” of the trading card. The rarity “Base” simply means it’s a fairly common NFT (we mint 100,000 of this card). Level, HP, STR, INT, STA, AGI, and CRI are attributes we assigned to allow the card to be used in D&D style gameplay. Variant is a boolean values, 0 meaning false. In this example, the card is not a variant edition. Finally, the year attribute is the year the card was minted.

Note that the attributes shown here were chosen by us. There is no standard. We could have assigned any attribute we wanted. However, Name, ID, and Rarity are fairly common NFT attributes.

image 2

Click the purchase button and buy the NFT. Congratulations, you now own a NFT. You can view it on the marketplace or in your digital wallet. The NFT you own is unique and can be handed off (traded or sold) to someone else just like any real-world collectible asset.

There are other NFT marketplaces besides AtomicHub to choose from. Here are some of the more popular ones.

You can create NFTs too but it’s more difficult than purchasing them. Remember when we said that trading NFTs and crypto is much harder than it should be? Here’s a good example of what we’re talking about. NFT creation uses different resources than WAX. WAX forked to use a custom EOS blockchain for their WAX token. This complicated things but in short, from the AtomicHub marketplace, to create a NFT we must first convert our WAX to “staked resources”, specifically CPU, RAM, and NET. Yes, they are named such.

In the EOS world, CPU is used to execute transactions on the blockchain. NET refers to the amount of data you can send while RAM is used for storage of information. These resources are used when you create NFTs and/or buy them. Sometimes you may run out. When you do, the system will prompt you to purchase more. Thankfully, purchasing NFTs is a much easier process.

Blockchain Heroes NFT
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A complete list of stock trading chart patterns that every Cryptocurrency (Bitcoin) trader should know.

Symmetrical Triangle Trading Pattern

Stocks and cryptocurrencies behave in much the same manner. The prices of both rise and fall according to supply and demand. The more demand for a cryptocurrency, the higher the price. The rise and fall of prices is easily visualized in trading charts.

Charts often display prices using “candlesticks”, a single vertical line indicating the highest and lowest trading prices for the day. The candlesticks are typically colored green on days the crypto closed at a higher price than the day before and red for days that it closed lower.

In any trading chart, you can see price levels that the crypto just can’t seem to break beyond. When a price bumps into a level as the price rises, we call this resistance. When the price seems to meet resistance at a lower price point, we call this support. Prices have a hard time climbing above resistance points. Conversely, prices tend to have difficulty dropping below a price support level.

Support and Resistance
Support and Resistance lines in a trading chart

You can draw a line along the resistance and support levels to visualize a “resistance line”. Resistance lines that angle downward show a decreasing price pattern while resistance lines that trend upward show a rising price pattern.

By studying crypto trading charts, you can predict how the price will behave in the future. Certain patterns within a price action are common and known as “chart patterns”. Below is a collection of stock chart/crypto chart patterns that every trader should know.

Wedge trading chart pattern

Wedge Bullish Trading Pattern
Wedge trading chart pattern

A wedge forms when the price bounces between support and resistance lines. In this example, the wedge is outlined in yellow lines and is falling. A “falling wedge” hints at a breakout above the upper resistance line. A “upward wedge” typically results in the price breaking downward through the support resistance line.

Symmetrical Triangle trading chart pattern

Symmetrical Triangle Trading Pattern
Symmetrical Triangle trading chart pattern

A Symmetrical Triangle pattern looks similar to a wedge but the lines begin the close together. The price variant is narrowing and prepared to break out. A Symmetrical pattern does not indicate which direction the price will break but when it does, the break can be quite large. A similar pattern, the Pennant or Flag pattern, is discussed below.

Pennant or flag trading chart patterns

pennant trading chart pattern 1
Pennant or flag trading chart pattern

While the Pennant pattern looks like a Symmetrical Triangle pattern (see above), they are typically considered distinct patterns with subtle differences. First, a Pennant pattern is prefaced by a “flagpole”. This flagpole represents a sharp rise or fall in the price followed by a period of consolidation. Secondly, the period of consolidation (the “pennant”) is shorter in the Pennant pattern than seen in the symmetrical triangle pattern. A pennant pattern lasts between 1-4 weeks whereas a symmetrical triangle pattern can last for months. In other words, a triangle pattern forms when the price range contracts over a period greater than 3-4 weeks.

Double Top trading chart pattern

Double Top Trading Pattern
Double top trading chart pattern

The Double Top trading chart pattern looks like the letter “M”. The price bounces off the upper resistance line, failing to break through, then off a support line and back again to the resistance line where it again fails to break through. The resistance line has been tested twice and failed. The price will typically break down through the support line and fall.

Double bottom trading chart pattern

Double Bottom Trading Pattern
Double bottom trading chart pattern

The Double bottom trading chart pattern is the opposite of the Double Top pattern. The pattern looks like the letter “W”. The price bounces off the lower support line, failing to break through, then off a resistance line and back again to the support line where it again fails to break through. The support line has been tested twice and failed. The price will typically break upward through the resistance line and continue to rise.

Ascending Triangle trading chart pattern

Ascending Triangle Trading Pattern
Ascending Triangle trading chart pattern

The Ascending Triangle pattern displays a horizontal resistance line, a steady price that has been tested multiple times but failed to break through. The support line display a rise showing the bottom end of the price continued to rise as the resistance line was tested. This pattern hints at a breakout to the upward side, above the resistance line.

Descending Triangle trading chart pattern

Descending Triangle Bearish Trading Pattern
Descending Triangle trading chart pattern

The Descending Triangle trading chart pattern is opposite of the Ascending triangle pattern. This pattern displays a horizontal support line, a steady price that has been tested multiple times but failed to break through the downward side. The resistance line display a decline showing the top end of the price continued to fall each time the support line was tested. This pattern hints at a breakout to the downward side, below the support line.

Rounding Bottom trading chart pattern

rounding bottom trading chart pattern
Rounding bottom trading chart pattern

The breakout from a Rounding Bottom pattern depends on the price action before the rounded bottom formed. For instance, the price was rising, then fell into a Rounding Bottom pattern. We would expect the price to break out upward and past any resistance zones.

Cup and Handle trading chart pattern

cup and handle tradking chart pattern
Cup and Handle trading chart pattern

The Cup and Handle trading chart pattern looks just like a Rounded Bottom pattern (see above) except there is a small decline after breaking out. This retracement , the “handle”, is only temporary and identified by its confinement between two parallel price lines. The asset will reverse out of the handle and continue on its bullish (upward) trend.

Head and shoulders trading chart pattern

Head and Shoulders Trading Pattern
Head and Shoulders trading chart pattern

The Head and Shoulders pattern is a common one, especially when predicting the reversal of a bull market. The chart displays a large center peak with two smaller peaks on each side (a “head” surrounded by “shoulders”). The price action can be seen as struggling to rise. Each attempt to rise results in a fallback to the support line. displays a horizontal resistance line, a steady price that has been tested multiple times but failed to break through. The support line display a rise showing the bottom end of the price continued to rise as the resistance line was tested. This pattern hints at a breakout to the upward side, above the resistance line.

Gap patterns

Snag f5f5233
Gap patterns (Breakaway and Runaway gaps)

Gap patterns occur when the asset experiences a strong price movement through a support or resistance line. The gap, or empty space in the chart, is the difference between the open price and the prior close price.

There are three types of gaps – breakaway, runaway, and exhaustion. They differ depending on when the gap appears in the trend. Breakaway gaps occur early in the trend, runaway gaps occur around the middle of the trend, and exhaustion gaps appear toward the end of the trend.

You should pay attention to the volume during the gap. A gap on large volume indicates conviction in the direction of the gap. For instance, a volume increase on a breakout gap hints the price will continue in the breakout direction.

Deeper analysis

Additional data points must be taken into consideration when analyzing chart patters. For instance, RSI can tell us whether the asset is over- or under-sold and volume can tell us how “strong” the signal is.

Analyzing the Head and Shoulders Pattern

image

In this chart, you can clear see the first shoulder form. After forming the first shoulder, the price bounces off the resistance line and climbs upward to form the head. The last prices in the head fall, then bounce off the trendline and rises back to the resistance line, forming the second shoulder. At the second shoulder’s peak, the price bounces off the resistance line again and begins to fall. This is the signal to sell. The pattern is complete, but our analysis does not stop there.

We know that inexperienced short sellers often look for this pattern. They place their shorts with stops just above the neckline. Then the more experienced players come in and take out the stops (by engineering a short squeeze). This is what caused the price to reverse and begin climbing again. However, this is a short-term reaction. After the stop action is complete, the price will typically continue it’s fall (we see the beginning of this action at the end of the chart) but this is not always the case. The price action after the dip truly indicates what happens next.

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There’s a chart for that . A quick glance at this collection of charts will make you 10X smarter (or at least, ensure you’re the life of your next party).

How British Isles arenamed

Forget boring data tables. These charts give a clearer picture of interesting facts that’ll ensure you are the life of your next party.

  • How British Isles arenamed
  • Chart of screw types
  • Golf names for different ball flights
  • A guide to minimum ice thickness and weight
  • How to pack a backpack illustration
  • Chart of NATO phonetic alphabet call signs
  • Star Wars timeline chart
  • 9 types of intelligence illustration
  • Visual Guide to Sofa Couch Styles
  • Chart of US generation names
  • Map of alps across Europe
  • The degree tilt of each planet
  • Chart of animal lifespans
  • Simple guide to CPR
  • Regional names for Nestle water in the United States
  • Blood type compatibility chart
  • The many shades of khaki color pants
  • Map of Pangea (ancient supercontinent) with modern borders
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With the new The High Republic, the official Star Wars timeline has been expanded and refined.

Star Wars timeline with new The High Republic

Introduced in January 2021, Star Wars: The High Republic takes Star Wars into a realm 200 years before Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace (1999). The new High Republic franchise is told through various series including short stories, novels, comics, and an online web series. With the new saga comes a new, expanded and refined Star Wars timeline. Here are the new canonical Star Wars eras.

The High Republic

star wars the high republic era

The High Republic is the oldest era in the new Star Wars timeline. The Jedi Order reigns supreme and there is peace throughout the galaxy and expansion into the Outer Rim has begun.

The Fall of the Jedi

star wars fall of the jedi era

The prequel trilogy, Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace (1999), Star Wars: Episode II – The Attack of the Clones (2002), and Star Wars: Episode III – The Revenge of the Sith (2005), take place during the Fall of the Jedi era. This is the era when Emperor Sheev Palpatine rose to power.

Reign of the Empire

star wars reign of the empire era

Solo: A Star Wars Story and The Bad Batch are set during the Reign of the Empire era. Imperial forces rule throughout the galaxy. The stories of popular characters such as Han Solo and Chewbacca took place during this era.

Age of Rebellion

star wars age of rebellion era

The original trilogy, Star Wars: Episode IV – A New Hope (1977), Star Wars: Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back (1980), and Star Wars: Episode VI – The Return of the Jedi (1983), Star Wars Rebels, and Rogue One: A Star Wars Story (2018), took place during the Age of Rebellion era. Han Solo, Princess Leia Organa, C-3PO, Chewbacca, and more are battling the Galactic Empire with the Rebellion.

The New Republic

star wars the new republic era

The Mandalorian, Ahsoka, Rangers of the New Republic, and The Book of Boba Fett take place during The New Republic era. The former Rebel Alliance has its own government on the core planets while the Outer Rim is controlled by the Imperial remnant.

Rise of the First Order

star wars rise of the first order era

The Skywalker Saga sequel trilogy — Star Wars: Episode VII – The Force Awakens (2015), Star Wars: Episode VIII – The Last Jedi (2017), and Star Wars: Episode IX – The Rise of Skywalker, take place during the Rise of the First Order. Supreme Leader Snoke, Kylo Ren, and the First Order stormtroopers rule.

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This stunning bookstore in China features a Escher-style design and mirrors that create the illusion of wall-to-wall-books.

Chongqing Zhongshuge bookstore in China

Chongqing Zhongshuge bookstore in China looks fantastic with its maze of staircases, mirrors, and Escher-style design. The bookstore is located on the 3rd and 4th floors of the Zodi Plaza building in Yangjiaping, Chongqing, China. Notice how the maze of staircases double as bookshelves.

Check out the pics in the gallery below.

  • chongqing zhongshuge bookstore 3 869x580 1
  • chongqing zhongshuge bookstore 5 869x580 1
  • chongqing zhongshuge bookstore 4 883x580 1
  • Chongqing Zhongshuge bookstore in China
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The logic and programming behind Pac-Man – all the crazy cool stuff you ever wanted to know about how the classic Pac-Man game works under the hood.

Pac-Man game
Pac-Man characters - Blinky (Shadow), Pinky (Speedy), Inky (Bashful), and Clyde (Pokey)

Pac-Man was released to arcades in 1980, more than 40 year ago. It is by far the best-selling arcade game of all time. With such a record, you would think you knew everything there was to know about the game. Not so. Here are some little-known Pac-Man facts that are not just interesting – they can improve your game play too.

Puck-Man?

The game was originally named Puck-Man but Midway feared players would vandalize the machine and change the “P” to a “F”. The game was renamed Pac-Man just before its release to American arcades in October 1980.

The four ghosts

The four ghosts are known as Blinky (red), Pinky (pink), Inky (blue) and Clyde (orange). Each has its own “personality” and game play techniques.

The anatomy of the board

There are 244 dots in the Pac-Man maze, worth 10 points each. The flashing dots, known as “energizers” are worth 50 points each. This yields a total of 2,600 points or clearing the entire board.

The size of the Pac-Man screen

The Pac-Man game screen is 224 by 288 pixels. The screen is divided into tiles – 28 horizontally and 36 vertically. Each tile in the game is 8 pixels square.

Ghost modes

The ghosts have three modes they can operate in – chase mode where they find and capture Pac-Man, scatter mode, where they head for their respective corners, and frightened mode where they run away from Pac-Man after he eats one of the four energizers.

Ghosts cannot reverse their direction of travel

The ghosts are prohibited from reversing their direction of travel. They can only travel the direction they are facing to take the next intersection. The ghosts only change direction when the mode changes from chase-to-scatter, chase-to-frightened, scatter-to-chase, and scatter-to-frightened.

The chase period

The first two chase periods last for 20 seconds. The duration of the third chase period depends on the level. The third chase period is 20 seconds on level one, then 1,033 seconds (more than 17 minutes) for levels 2-4, and 1,037 seconds for all levels afterward.

Frightened ghost turns at intersections

Frightened ghosts turn blue and appear to wander around aimlessly while avoiding Pac-Man. In truth, a random number is generated and used to determine which direction the ghost should move at each approaching intersection. If the chosen direction is blocked by a wall, the ghosts attempts the following directions in this order: up, left, down, and right.

Pac-man speed

Pac-man moves at 80% of his maximum speed until level 5 when he moves at full speed until level 21 at which point he reduces his speed to 90% for the remainder of the game.

Ghost speed

Ghosts move at a slightly slower speed than Pac-Man until the 21st level at which point they begin moving faster than Pac-man.

When Blinky becomes Elroy

When a level begins, all ghosts move at the same speed, However, Blinky will move twice as fast each round based on how many dots are remaining. When Blinky is in this accelerated state, he is known as “Cruise Elroy”. When in Elroy mode, Blinky will always chase Pac-Man and refuse to go into scatter mode with the other ghosts.

Eating dots slows Pac-Man down

Each dot Pac-Man eats causes him to stop moving for one frame or 1/60th of a second.

Eating energizes slows Pac-Man down even more than dots

Each energizer Pac-Man eats causes him to stop moving for three frames or 3/60th of a second.

Eating ghosts

Pac-Man can eat ghosts without harm after eating one of the four energizers. The first ghost eaten yields 200 points, the second 400 points, the third 800 points, and the fourth and final ghost 1,600 points.

Ghosts cannot be eaten after level 19

The ghosts’ “blue time” decreases with each level. By level 19, the ghosts stop turning blue altogether and can no longer be eaten by Pac-Man.

Eating fruit

Fruits appear randomly during the game and are worth between 100 and 5,000 points. The amount of time a fruit stays visible is always between 9 and 10 seconds.

Pac-Man turns

Pac-Man navigates the turns faster than the ghosts because he does not have to wait until the middle of the turn to change direction as ghosts do. This is why good players push the joystick before getting to an intersection (called “pre-turns”). Turns are how Pac-Man puts distance between him and the ghosts.

The ghost house or monster pen

The area in the middle where ghosts begin their lives (and Pac-Man cannot enter) is called the ghost house or monster pen. Blinky always begins above the ghost house with Inky, Pinky, and Clyde beginning in side the house in that order.

Blinky in the ghost house

The Pac-Man ghost house and the character starting positions

Blinky (red) always starts outside the ghost house when a level begins. The only time Blinky gets inside the ghost house is after Pac-Man eats him. He then immediately exits the ghost house when revived.

The order ghosts leave the ghost house

Besides Blinky, who leaves the ghost house immediately, a ghost determines when to leave the ghost house by counting the number of dots Pac-man has eaten. Pinky (pink) leaves first. Inky (blue) leaves after 30 dots are eaten. Clyde (orange) leaves after 60 dots have been eaten. Each characters counter begins when the prior character leaves the ghost house. However, there is a timer limit too. A ghost will always leave within 4 seconds during levels 1-4 and 5 seconds starting with level 5, no matter how many dots Pac-Man has eaten.

After level 2, all ghosts leave the ghost house immediately

Ghosts normally leave the house depending how many dots Pac-Man has eaten. However, beginning at level three, all ghosts leave the ghost house immediately after being revived.

The direction a ghost takes when leaving the ghost house is usually left

Ghosts move left when leaving the ghost house unless the game has changed modes (from chase-to-scatter, chase-to-frightened, scatter-to-chase, or scatter-to-frightened) while the ghost is inside the ghost house. If the game changes modes while a ghost is in the house, the ghost will move to the right when leaving the house.

Ghosts cannot move upward through the intersections above the ghost house

The two upward paths above the ghost house door cannot be taken by any ghosts. Ghosts are forbidden to move upward in this zone. They can only travel from right-to-left of from left-to-right when above the ghost house.

There is a second area where ghosts cannot move upward

There is a T-shaped wall at the bottom-center of the screen. In the area directly above the T, ghosts are forbidden from turning upward at the intersection. Only Pac-Man can travel upward through these tunnel entrances.

58768 01 2

You can pass through a ghost unharmed

Pac-Man can pass right through a ghost without being harmed. This happens when Pac-Man and an approaching ghost enter the tile at the exact same time. The window of opportunity is so small (1/60th of a second) that it rarely happens.

Ghosts prefer to move in specific directions

Ghosts prefer to move directions in this order: up, left, down, right. However, “target tiles” override these choices.

Ghosts always travel towards a “target tile”

clyde targeting3

Ghosts do not wander around aimlessly. A ghost is always trying to reach a specific tile somewhere on or off the screen. Each ghost calculates its target tile in a different manner. In chase mode, the target tile is usually related to Pac-Man’s current tile. In scatter mode, the target tile is a fixed tile located in the character’s home corner. Thus the only difference between chase mode and scatter mode is where the ghost’s target tile is located.

Blinky’s target tile

Blinky’s target tile is always Pac-Man’s current tile. This is why Blinky always chases Pac-Man with reckless abandon.

Pinky’s target tile

Pinky’s does not target Pac-Man’s current tile directly. Instead, his target tile in chase mode is a tile offset four tiles away from Pac-Man in the direction Pac-Man is currently moving. This is why Pinky seems to often move ahead and “block” Pac-Man.

Pinky sometimes seems to run away from Pac-Man

Pinky’s target tile is four tiles away from Pac-Man in the direction Pac-Man is travelling. If the target tile calculated by Pinky falls behind Pac-Man, Pinky will turn right before he reaches Pac-Man in an attempt to get behind him. For this reason, when Pinky approaches Pac-man, a player can jiggle the control back and forth, a technique known as head faking, to make Pinky turn away.

Inky’s target tile

Inky’s tile-targeting scheme is more complex than any of the other ghosts. It takes into account Pac-Man and Blinky’s current tiles. This is why Inky’s behavior is more unpredictable than the other ghosts.

Clyde’s target tile

Clyde’s tile-targeting scheme is more complex than Blink and Pinky’s but less complex than Inky’s. If Pac-Man is more than 8 tiles away, Clyde’s target tile will be Pac-Man’s current tile. If Clyde is closer than 8 tiles to Pac-Man, he will switch to scatter-mode targeting and head for his own corner of the board until he is far enough away to target Pac-Man again. It is for this reason, in special circumstances, Pac-Man can park in a corner and force Clyde into an endless circle pattern.

The random fruits

Random objects appear during the game which can be eaten for extra points. They are a cherry, strawberry, peach, apple, grapes, Galaxian, bell, and a key. All objects are food except for three. The Galaxian was a tribute to the Galaxian game which was being developed by Midway at the same time as Pac-Man. Nobody knows why the bell and key were included in the selection of fruits.

The game ends at level 256 and enters a split-screen

It is impossible to proceed pass level 256. The reason is a bug in the game that causes the board to go into “split screen” with the left side of the screen playing normally but the right side of the screen drawing a bizarre series of seemingly random shapes. Hidden behind the shape are 9 dots that can be eaten by a player if they can blindly find them.

Pac-Man split screen bug at level 256

A perfect score

A perfect score would be 3,333,360 points and is achieved when the player eats every dot, energize, fruit, and blue ghost through level 256. Some players have achieved this score.

Pac-Man Intermissions (aka Pac-Man Commercials)

There are three intermissions in Pac-Man, humorous animations that appear between levels. The first appears after round 2 and shows a larger “super” version of Pac-Man chasing Blinky. The second appears after round 5 and shows Blinky getting caught on a nail. The third is seen after rounds 9, 13, and 17 and shows Blinky disrobed.

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You can now easily build a low-cost microscope that uses off the shelf parts and is as powerful as commercial microscopes costing thousands of times more. Meet the brilliant modular UC2 microscope system.

UC2 microscope system

This is definitely one of the coolest things we’ve ever seen. A open source microscope that uses a modular design letting you build a low-cost microscope using off-the-shelf parts and a 3D printer – and it’s as powerful as microscopes costing thousands of times more! The design of the UC2 system is so effective and efficient (and ingenious), some believe it may become the microscopy equipment of choice even for professional biologists.

The development of the UC2 microscope system

A research team from the Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology in Jena, Germany set out to build a modern microscope to use for biological imaging that was efficient and effective. Such a microscope would be especially useful today in the fight against infectious diseases such as Covid-19. Currently, the problem with hi-powered microscopes required for this type of research is the price. Microscopes capable of viewing moving cells in a culture can cost thousands of dollars. So they developed an innovative method to create a microscope that is low cost but can still deliver high-resolution images comparable to commercial microscopes that cost thousands of times more.

Their new open source microscope uses a module system they call UC2 (“You see too”). It consists of 3D printable cubes, about 2-inches wide, that can host a wide variety of individual components like lenses, mirrors, illumination lights, displays, or cameras. The components are mounted inside the cube which then aligns and attaches to a 3D-printed baseplate to create the final microscopy instrument.

Componentized cubes can be mixed and matched in an endless number of configurations to create very specialized types of microscopes. For instance, you can create a projector microscope, a spectrometer, a fluorescence microscope, or a smartphone microscope. You can even create the “reverse” of a microscope – a high-powered telescope! All plans and software are openly published on GitHub making them freely available to everyone.

Why a modular microscope?

The modularity of the UC2 equipment means low-cost off-the-shelf parts can be used in the system. For instance, the mirrors can be bought directly from Amazon for about $30. The LED lights can be purchased as a LED matric for about $15 from Mouser or other online electronic stores. And popular micro-controller hobby boards like the Rasberry Pi, Adafruit, or Arduino can be used as low-cost controllers for more elaborate scopes.

An even bigger advantage for scientists is, oddly enough, is the microscope’s ease of cleaning and disposability. Helge Ewers, Poforessor of Biochemistry at the Free University of Berlin explained:

“The UC2 system allows us to produce a high-quality microscope at low cost, with which we can observe living cells in an incubator. Commercial microscopes that can be used to examine pathogens over a longer period of time cost hundreds or thousands of times more than our UC2 setup. You can hardly get them into a contaminated laboratory from which you may not be able to remove them because they cannot be cleaned easily. The UC2 microscope made of plastic, on the other hand, can be easily burned or recycled after its successful use in the biological safety laboratory. “

Another benefit to scientists is the rapid-prototyping provided by the microscope’s modular system. Rather than purchasing dozens of different types of microscopes, components can easily be swapped out using the UC2 system.

“It is possible to quickly assemble the right tool to map specific cells. If, for example, a red wavelength is required as excitation, you simply install the appropriate laser and change the filter. If an inverted microscope is needed, you stack the cubes accordingly. With the UC2 system, elements can be combined depending on the required resolution, stability, duration or microscopy method and tested directly in the “rapid prototyping” process.”

Dare I say this microscope is revolutionary!

How the UC2 microscope system works

The coolest thing about this system is brilliant engineering behind the system. Cubes are 3D-printed, loaded with a component, and placed on 3D-printed baseplate. The cube and baseplate attach to each other using ball magnets and screws. The 3D printed baseplate has holes for the 5mm ball magnet and opposing holes on the cube for a screw. This lets the components “stick” to the baseplate so the various parts are properly aligned and stabilized.

The components are then stacked in sequence across the baseplate like this> Each box in the diagram below is a cube.

LED 
Translucent 
L +40 mm 
Image 
4x magnified 
image
The UC2 system grid layout

If the microscope design is complex or space becomes an issue, mirrors can be used so cubes can be placed parallel to each other. In the example below, an LED light matrix occupies the L cube, a lens in the MO cube, a mirror in the M cube which redirects the image to a camera in the CAM cube. The XYZ cube is a servo-based component that lets the components be motorized for movement and adjustment.

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Example of a UC2 system microscope

Multiple mirrors (M cubes) can be used too as seen in this transmission microscope that uses a smartphone (Cam cube) for image acquisition.

Sample 
CAM 
MO
A UC2 system microscope using mirrors to fold the beam

The module design lets you build all sorts of microscopes, including highly specialized microscopes (expensive if purchased through a commercial channel). Here’s a specialized scope one that uses transmission interferometry.

Sample 
Compensation 
CAM
A specialized UC2 system microscope – transmission interferometry

Here’s another design – a light-sheet combined with fluorescence.

image 4
A specialized UC2 system microscope – a light-sheet combined with fluorescence

How to build a UC2 microscope

To construct a UC2 microscope, you would first 3D-print the baseplate to which the cubes are attached. The baseplates serve as the spine for any setup you build. 5mm ball magnets are inserted into the baseplate. Cubes have opposing screws that magnetically attach to the baseplate ball magnet.

The UC2 baseplate

Baseplates can be printed in various sizes: 4×1, 4×2, and 4×4 are common. Here’s a 4×1 baseplate.

UC2 YouSeeToo - How to assemble the baseplate?
The UC2 system baseplate – the spine of the microscope

In the image below, you can see how the cube attaches to the baseplate using ball magnets and screw. In this picture, the baseplate is blue and the cube is orange and black.

image 4
A cube attached to the baseplate

You can even 3D-print a baseplate connector to join two baseplates together in a horizontal/vertical design.

image 8
A UC2 system baseplate connector

Example 1 – a LED matrix cube

The various cubes are fairly easy to construct too. For instance, a LED matrix cube can be built to provide illumination for the object being observed. To create a LED matrix cube, a 3D-printed cube is first created using the models in the UC2 Github library.

image 5
Cube for a UC2 LED matrix

Other than screws and wire, the only components you need to purchase off the shelf are a $10 ESP32 microcontroller (with integrated WiFi and Bluetooth) and a $20 Neopixel LED Matrix Array. These can be easily obtained from any electronics store.

The LED matrix and ESP32 chip are soldered together and then inserted into the cube’s slot and attached with M2 screws. You can see in the picture below, the two vertical standing gray pieces are sandwiched together to create the 3D-printed slot. You can see the ESP32 microcontroller in an opening in the back of the slot

image
Attaching the LED matrix to the cube

Example 2 – a cube mirror

Cube mirrors are common UC2 components. The cube mirror, used to fold the beam with a mirror, is built in a similar fashion to the LED matrix discussed above. The mirror insert piece and cube is 3D-printed using the design downloaded from the UC2 project’s GitHub.

Here are the parts: The cream colored part is the mirror. The black part is the mirror insert. The orange pieces are the cube – the cube’s body and a “lid” that will be screwed on top of the cube to hold everything together.

image 1
Parts used to create a cube mirror

A 30mm by 30mm mirror, available from Amazon for about $30, is glued to the mirror insert as seen below.

image 2
The cube mirror insert

The mirror insert is placed inside the cube. The shape of the 3D-printed mirror insert allows it to fig snugly in the corner of the cube. The cube “lid” is screwed on to hold the mirror insert in place like this.

image 3
An assembled UC2 system mirror cube

Example 3 – a camera system

A camera system allows you to take pictures of the structures you are examining through the microscope. In the UC2 system, hi-quality cellphone cameras and Raspberry Pi cameras are commonly used. Below is a camera cube containing a Raspberry Pi camera sensor. The camera sensor is placed in an adapter which inserts in the 3D-printed base cube.

image 9
UC2 system camera cube

Here are the parts that are used to build a Raspberry Pi camera cube. The black piece is the camera adapter. The orange pieces are the cube (base cube body and a “lid” that is screwed on to hold everything together). The white piece comes with the Raspberry Pi and is used to remove the camera’s lens. The small black piece with attached ribbon is the Raspberry Pi camera sensor.

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Parts used to build the camera cube

The camera is inserted into the camera adapter and held in place using M2 screws. The camera adapter is then placed in the cube body and the lid attached with more M2 screws to hold everything in place.

image 6
An assembled UC2 system camera cube

Example 4 – in-incubator microscope

The UC2 system lets you build complex microscopy equipment. Guided by your imagination, practically anything is possible Below is a design for a in-incubator microscope.

MO 
CAM
Design for an in-incubator microscope

And here’s what the microscope looks like when assembled.

image 11
Assembled UC2 system in-incubator microscope
image 12
Assembled UC2 system in-incubator microscope

More information

It wouldn’t be out of line to call the UC2 system revolutionary. With the UC2 system, low-cost, easy-to-assemble microscopes can now be obtained by an home users and people in underdeveloped countries who otherwise cannot afford specialized microscopy equipment.

You can read more about the UC2 microscope system from the official website or get materials (including tutorials) from the UC2 github.

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Why the Star Wars Holiday Special was so bad – and why it is so important to Star Wars continuity.

Star Wars Holiday Special movie poster

The Star Wars Holiday Special aired on November 17, 1978 (the week before Thanksgiving) and was universally panned. Set between the events of the original movie and The Empire Strike Back, the show was the first Star Wars spinoff. But after hitting the airwaves, the show was pulled from the archives. It was never rebroadcast nor released on home video. Harrison Ford said he had no memory of filming it and therefore “it didn’t exist”. Carrie Fisher said she obtained a copy of the show and played it at parties, “mainly at the end of the night when I wanted people to leave.” George Lucas was said to be so embarrassed by it, he wished “he could find every copy and smash it with a sledgehammer”. Still, Lucas has always maintained the show as a part of Star Wars C-canon (the classification given to officially licensed Star Wars books, comics, and games). Here’s how the $1 million-dollar production turned out so bad while still contributing key events to Star Wars lore.

The production of the Star Wars Holiday Special

Wookiee Life Day ceremony from the Star Wars Holiday Special
Wookiee Life Day ceremony from the Star Wars Holiday Special

CBS came up with the idea of doing a Star Wars TV special – a Star Wars mini-movie with variety acts mixed in. George Lucas was never directly involved in the production of the show (and his name does not appear in the credits). However, he insisted the show center around Wookiees and nothing else. Producers tried to change his mind fearing a show with characters who could not talk would be impossible to create, but Lucas would not give in.

The show’s first director, David Acomba, left the show after feeling there was a divide between him and the producers. He was replaced by Steve Blinder who found the project had spent its entire budget with three-fourths of the show yet to be filmed.

“When I got called in, they had already started production and shut it down because they had spent all their budget and only shot a fourth of the show. So I came in as a kind of a fireman. I got the script on a Friday, and I started shooting on a Monday. When I saw the script, I saw the first 10 minutes with the Chewbacca family was just in subtitles. I thought, ‘Uh-oh, we’re gonna be in trouble.’ But I had no say in changing anything at that point — I just had to get it shot.”

With a “Wookiee Bible” given to him by George Lucas, Blinder set out to complete the project in record time with limited resources.

All of the acts in the special were loosely linked together. There were musical numbers (Jefferson Starship), celebrity cameos (Art Carney, Harvey Korman, and Bea Arthur), animation (The Faithful Wookiee, a cartoon that debuted Boba Fett), skits, and variety show acts (acrobatics, juggling) intermingled with the primary plot (Chewbacca trying to return home to his family). Unfortunately, the mixing of unrelated variety acts drive by a Star Wars plot proved to be too disjointed and the poor acting and cheap film sets made the show laughable.

Imperial soldiers searching Chewbacca's home in the Star Wars Holiday Special
Imperial soldiers searching Chewbacca’s home

Finally, if the plot and filming problems were not enough, Blinder was unable to edit the film due to scheduling conflicts. Instead, the special was edited by the producers – none of which had any prior experience with editing. Thus any hope of stitching together a workable show was dashed.

The night the special aired had been a busy news day. A CIA agent was sentenced to prison for selling a US spy satellite manual to the Soviet Union and Russia admitted to violating a treaty by testing a neutron bomb. Thus many of the commercial slots were filled with breaking news coverage of the events, further damping the holiday spirit of the show.

The Star Wars Holiday Special aired on CBS from 8:00 PM to 10:00 PM Eastern Time. It pre-empted Wonder Woman and The Incredible Hulk.

The show had many sponsors including General Motors, Kenner Products, Bristol-Myers Squibb (then known as Bristol-Myers), International Ladies’ Garment Workers Union (featuring the “Look for the Union Label” campaign), Bell System, Standard Brands, Pillsbury Company, Schaper Toys, Revlon, Whirlpool Corporation, American Home Products, Hanes, McDonald’s, Florists’ Transworld Delivery, Fruit of the Loom, Kayser-Roth, S.C. Johnson & Son and Italian Swiss Colony (wine).

Star Wars Holiday Special plot

The Star Wars Holiday Special plot, which George Lucas sketched out, served as little more than a means to string together a series of musical numbers, celebrity cameos and other variety-show acts. In fact, the plot could be summed up in one sentence: “Han and Chewbacca avoid Imperial forces so they can return to Chewy’s home planet for the celebration of Life Day.” George Lucas later explained the problem with trying to mix a variety show into a Star Wars plot.

“It just kept getting reworked and reworked, moving away into this bizarre land. They were trying to make one kind of thing and I was trying to make another, and it ended up being a weird hybrid between the two. I’m not sure either position would have worked on its own, but by combining them.”

The show begins with Chewbacca and Han Solo travelling to Chebacca’s home planet, Kashyyyk, for a “Life Day” celebration. They are chased by two Star Destroyers but manage to escape by slipping into hyperspace.

Chewbacca and Han flee Imperial forces

Meanwhile, on Chewbacca’s home planet, Kashyyyk, his family prepares for his visit in a poorly conceived and poorly acted introduction. As seen throughout the show, an acrobatic skit is clumsily worked into the scene via the child watching a television program. All of the skits in the show are presented in this cloddish manner.

Lumpy watching acrobat skit in Star Wars Holiday Special

Chewbacca’s wife, Malia, runs a scan to search for Chewy’s ship and finding no ships in the area, begins to contact others to see if they have heard from Chewbacca. After several minutes of irritating Wookiee grunts, groans, and screams (actually recordings of bears, including a baby bear for the voice of Lumpy), various original Star Wars characters begin to make appearances . Luke Skywalker makes his first appearance in this manner.

Malia queries Luke Skywalker about missing Chewbacca

Malia prepares dinner, following the instructions for Bantha rump from a cooking show. Harvey Korman appears on the television as a multi-armed female cooking show host, Chef Gormaanda.

Harvey Korman as Chef Gormaanda

Chewbacca and Han come out of hyperspace near Kashyyyk but are still being attacked by an Imperial convoy in the area. At Chewy’s home, the TV is interrupted with a warning about Rebels in the area. More skits are worked into the special, portrayed as TV shows playing on Wookiee television.

A spaceship is heard passing over the Wookiee home. Malia opens the door to see who it is and finds two Imperial stormtroopers who have been tasked with finding Chewbacca. They force their way into the home and conduct a search in another poorly-acted scene. While the search is being conducted, one of the Imperial soldiers is entertained by Jefferson Starship playing a spacy musical number, Light the Sky on Fire, on a 3D-projection device. The clip marked Marty Balin’s final appearance with the band.

Jefferson Starship performs on Star Wars Holiday Special

During the search, Chewbacca’s son, Lumpy, is kept busy with a machine that plays a cartoon. It is in this cartoon that Boba Fett, the “best bounty hunter in the galaxy”, is first introduced when he saves Luke Skywalker from a dragon on the planet Panna. The cartoon is a bizarre tale about the hunt for a mysterious talisman. As shown in the cartoon, when Han and Luke are exposed to the talisman, they are “contaminated by a virus” and “go to sleep”. The only way to cure them is to hang them upside down so the blood can rush to their heads. Despite the silliness of the story, this segment has become one of the most popular aspects of the show.

Boba Fett first appearance in Star Wars Holiday Special

Lumpy (and the viewing audience) watch a Harvey Korman Howto skit about creating a device that changes your voice. Lumpy decides to build the device, change his voice to sound like a Stormtrooper leader, and trick the Imperial forces by ordering them back to their base.

This brings us to the only part of the Star Wars Holiday Special, other than the earlier Boba Fett cartoon, that received even remotely good reviews – a Harvey Korman and Bea Arthur comedy skit. While the Imperials are searching downstairs, the living room viewscreen activates, announcing that Tatooine is being put under curfew by the Empire because of “subversive forces”. The video is announced as required viewing for all viewers. The skit features Ackmena (Bea Arthur) running the Mos Eisley cantina. She is approached by an admirer: Krelman, an amorous alien played by Harvey Korman, who has misunderstood something she said to him during his last visit (“Come back soon, I’ll be waiting.”).

The cantina scene took a full 24-hours to shoot, from 6:00 AM one morning to 6:00 AM the next. During the filming, nurses walked among the actors in their alien costumes, feeding them oxygen through a tube so they didn’t pass out.

Star Wars Holiday Special cantina scene

Lumpy creates the device that tricks the stormtroopers into returning to base. However, one Stormtrooper realizes what Lumpy has done. He finds the machine, destroys it, and nearly destroys Lumpy before Han and Chewbacca arrive and kill the stormtrooper. There is a highlight here, though. The Wilhelm Scream is clear.

Wilhelm scream in Star Wars Holiday Special

The next sequence can only be described as utterly bizarre. The danger averted, the family disappears into a light. We can only presume they have gone to the Tree of Life to celebrate Life Day.

Wookiee Life Day Celebration

Finally, we see the Life Day celebration, see all the characters unite, and hear a sappy speech from Princess Leia. Then Carrie Fisher breaks out in song (“Happy Life Day”).

With funds exhausted, the final scene was shot in an aircraft hanger using off-the-shelf lighting and crude effects. Wookiees wore red robes in lieu of full Wookiee costumes to keep costs low.

Carrie Fisher sings in Star Wars Holiday Special

The show ends with the Wookiee family sitting around a table and bowing their heads.

The final Star Wars Holiday Special scene

Finally, the credits roll and every watcher breathes a sigh of relief when the announcer reminds them that Wonder Woman and The Incredible Hulk will return next week.

Star Wars Holiday Special credits

Why the Star Wars Holiday Special was important to the Star Wars canon

Despite the show’s terrible presentation, it proved important to Star Wars franchise.

  • The show was the first film-length Star Wars story after the original theatrical film and the first to provide an expanded look at other parts of the Star Wars universe.
  • The show introduced Chewbacca’s family, his father Itchy, his wife Malia, and his son, Lumpy.
  • It introduced Life Day as a Star Wars celebratory day.
  • The character of Boba Fett debuted in the cartoon, The Faithful Wookie. It is the first time Fett says, “We’ll meet again, friend.”
  • Chewbacca’s home planet, Kashyyyk, is introduced. It will appear later in The Empire Strikes Back and Revenge of the Sith
  • A new red ocean planet, Panna, is introduced (where Luke meets Boba Fett).
  • Chef Gormaanda made later appearances in other C-Canon works.

List of Star Wars Holiday Special characters

Less the shame be forgotten, here are the actors and characters who participated in this monstrosity.

Mark Hamill as Luke Skywalker
Harrison Ford as Han Solo
Carrie Fisher as Princess Leia
Anthony Daniels as C-3PO
Peter Mayhew as Chewbacca
James Earl Jones as Darth Vader (voice)
Beatrice Arthur as Ackmena
Art Carney as Trader Saun Dann
Diahann Carroll as Mermeia Holographic
The Jefferson Starship (Marty Balin, Craig Chaquico, Paul Kantner, David Freiberg, Pete Sears, John Barbata) as holographic band
Harvey Korman as Krelman / Chef Gormaanda / Amorphian instructor
Mickey Morton as Malla / Tork (uncredited) / Chef Gormaanda’s second pair of arms (uncredited)
Paul Gale as Itchy
Patty Maloney as Lumpy
Jack Rader as Imperial Guard Officer
Stephanie Stromer
Michael Potter as Imperial Guard
The Wazzan Troupe
Yuichi Sugiyama as the “Ring-Master”
The Mum Brothers
Claude Woolman as Imperial Officer
Lev Mailer as Imperial Guard
John McLaughlin
David Prowse (archive footage) as Darth Vader (uncredited)
Alec Guinness (archive footage) as Obi-Wan Kenobi (uncredited)
Leslie Schofield (archive footage) as Imperial Officer (uncredited)
Marcus Powell (archive footage) as Rycar Ryjerd (uncredited)

The full Star Wars Holiday Special

Glutton for punishment? You can watch the full Star Wars Holiday Special below.

Star Wars Holiday Special
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In the Titans animated series, why does the original Robin (Dick Grayson) hate Batman so much?

The Batman Robins

There have been several Robins in Batman lore. Dick Grayson, Jason Todd, Tim Drake, and Damian Wayne constitute the first four. Each Robin left Batman’s service for one reason or another.

Jason Todd is easily the most controversial of all Robins – and the most violent. Todd was nearly beaten to death by Joke and then killed when Joker blew up the warehouse he was in. He was later revived and became Red Hood under which mantle he continued to fight crime in his own controversial manner.

Tim Drake took over Robin’s role after Jason Todd’s death. Tim would also eventually leave Batman’s side to become Red Robin and part of the Teen Titans crimefighting group.

Damian Wayne, Batman’s son born of Talia Ghul. Trained as an assassin by Ghul, he is eventually killed by a clone of himself.

The original Batman, Dick Grayson, aways saw Batman as a father figure despite slowly evolving to question Batman’s methods and penchant for violence with a do-whatever-it-takes manner when combatting crime. This led to his solo career as Nightwing. But he still left Batman on good terms.

Dick Grayson’s origin story has changed multiple times. In the original arc, Batman makes Robin give up his role after Robin is nearly killed by the Joker. The most recent telling finds Robin struggling to balance his time between his role as Robin and leader of the Teen Titans. In all instances however, he gracefully leaves Batman’s service to become Nightwing.

But in the Teen Titans series, a different story is told. Robin expresses a profound hatred for Batman – or so it seems. Titans by nature, provides a dark interpretation of DC characters. Robin’s story is no different. Grayson expresses a fear that he will become as dark and brooding as Batman. He places the blame squarely on the training Batman provided him as a child.

According to the Teen Titans’ version of the story, Robin blames Batman for taking a vulnerable child and turning him into a killing machine. Robin has a valid point. Adults protect children – not put them in harm’s way. Taking a child and training him to risk his life to assist Batman in his personal vendetta against crime is unconscionable. Of course, kid sidekicks were common in Golden Age comics. It helped children better identify with the storyline.

However, Teen Titans also shows Robin writing his own fate through a series of bad decisions (e.g. stealing, an affair with Dove while she is married to Hawk, etc.) In truth, Robin feels he has no control over his identity. He sees how Batman could easily turn into an uncontrollable, rogue killing machine. Robin feels he could do the same.

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The Big List of Superman villains – all the major and minor villains Superman has faced during his crimefighting career.

Superman villains

Since his introduction in 1938, Superman has faced a number of villains.  Here is a list of the major and minor villains, as well as “evil” groups and the occasional ally acting as a villain, that have appeared in Superman comics over the years.

Superman Villains

Major Villains

VillainFirst appearanceDescription
Atlas1st Issue Special #1 (April 1975)Atlas has a crystal which gives him strength to rival Superman.
Atomic SkullSuperman #303 (September 1976)Albert Michaels was given radiation treatments that gave him atomic eye-blasts. Rose from an agent of SKULL to becoming the organization’s leader.
Adventures of Superman#483 (October 1991)Joseph Martin’s superhuman powers manifested after exposure to the Dominators’ gene-bomb.  As a result, the film buff began to hallucinate that he was a 1930s movie hero called the Atomic Skull and that Superman was his nemesis.
Anti-MonitorCrisis on Infinite Earths #2 (May 1985)The villain behind Crisis on Infinite Earths, the Anti-Monitor is one of the most powerful beings in the DC universe.
BizarroSuperboy #68 (October 1958)Bizarro was created when Superboy was exposed to a “duplicating ray”, and was later destroyed in the same story.
Action Comics #254 (July 1959)Lex Luthor exposed Kal-El, now Superman, to another duplicating ray, this time creating an adult Bizarro. This Bizarro later created a Bizarro Lois and left with her into Space. In accordance with the science fiction concepts of Superman stories of the era, Bizarro relocated to “the Bizarro World,” a cubical planet called Htrae (Earth spelled backwards) which operated under “Bizarro logic” (it was a crime to do anything good or right) and which Bizarro populated with inverted versions of Superman’s supporting cast and other DC heroes.
The Man of Steel #5 (December 1986)Bizarro was a flawed clone created by Lex Luthor‘s staff of scientists.
Superman vol. 2, #160 (September 2000)Post-Crisis another Bizarro was created when the Joker conned Mr. Mxyzptlk out of 99% of his powers and created a Bizarro World.
Black AdamThe Marvel Family #1 (December 1945)Born an Egyptian Pharaoh, the original champion of Shazam, Teth Adam formerly known as “Captain Marvel”. Black Adam is a Prime rival of Shazam. Also had brief encounter with the Man of Steel in two other media which includes the 2010 short animated film Superman/Shazam!: The Return of Black Adam, and the 2013 DC video game Injustice: Gods Among Us.
Black ZeroSuperman #205 (1968)The original Black Zero was a space saboteur who destroyed planets for pay, and was the man responsible for destroying Krypton. He was erased from existence following Crisis on Infinite Earths.
Superboy Vol. 4 #61In an alternate reality in which Superman never returned from the deadSuperboy became the new Black Zero and took control of Earth by force.
BloodsportSuperman vol. 2, #4 (April 1987)A gun-toting mercenary with Kryptonite bullets.
Adventures of Superman#506 (November 1993)A white supremacist, Alex Trent uses similar technology to the first Bloodsport.
BrainiacAction Comics #242 (July 1958)Most incarnations depict Brainiac (alias Vril Dox) as a bald, green-skinned alien android from the planet Colu, and one of the most dangerous villains in the DC universe, capable of possessing others, creating and manipulating computer systems, and exerting some control over time and space.
Bruno MannheimSuperman’s Pal Jimmy Olsen#139 (July 1971)Mannheim is one of Metropolis most powerful gangsters, the leader of Intergang.
Composite SupermanWorld’s Finest Comics #142 (June 1964)An out of work diver, Joseph Meach gained the combined powers of the Legion of Super-Heroes after being struck by the energy discharge of their statues. He then desired to defeat Superman and Batman. However the effects eventually wear off. Later they are given back by an alien whose Father was imprisoned by the two heroes, but when he turned back he sacrificed himself to save Superman and Batman from the Magna-Gun the alien had shot at them.
ConduitSuperman: The Man of Steel#0 (October 1994)A good friend of Clark Kent’s while growing up, Kenny Braverman was exposed to Kryptoniteradiation as a baby and so became a living Kryptonite battery. Obsessed with coming in second to Clark and killing both Clark and Superman, he has learned they are one and the same. He is currently deceased.
Cyborg SupermanAdventures of Superman#466 (May 1990)Hank Henshaw is an astronaut who died as a result of a doomed mission onboard space shuttleExcalibur. Because Superman failed to save him, Hank Henshaw blames him for the loss of his original body, as well as the death of his wife. Reduced to a formless entity that inhabits mechanical bodies, the Cyborg desires to cause Superman equal pain. He masqueraded as a resurrectedSuperman after the hero’s apparent death, claiming to be the result of Superman’s remains being reconstructed into cybernetic form. The ruse was a tremendous success, even earning the Cyborg an endorsement from the U.S. President as the “true” Superman. Hank Henshaw betrayed those whose lives he was entrusted with when he obliterated Coast City with the help of Mongul; this event led toGreen Lantern Hal Jordan‘s mental breakdown and later transformation into Parallax. Later he became a member of the Sinestro Corps, still continuing to mockingly bear Superman’s insignia.
Action Comics #252 (May 1959)Zor-El was introduced as the new Cyborg Superman following the New 52 relaunch of the DC Universe. Zor-El was rescued from Krypton’s destruction by Brainiac and was reconfigured as a cyborg to be his scout for looking for stronger species in the universe.[1]
DarkseidSuperman’s Pal Jimmy Olsen#134 (November 1970)Uxas, Son of Heggra, alien dictator of the planet Apokolips. As with gods in other mythologies, Darkseid is incredibly powerful, but cannot escape his ultimate destiny. It has been foretold that Darkseid will meet his final defeat at the hands of his son, Orion, in a cataclysmic battle in the fiery Armaghetto of Apokolips.

 

According to writer Mark Evanier, Jack Kirby modeled Darkseid on actor Jack Palance.[2]

DoomsdaySuperman: The Man of Steel#17 (November 1992)The creature who killed Superman in a titanic battle that also resulted in Doomsday’s death, although Doomsday comes back to life every time he dies, albeit more powerful. Created by an ancient genetic experiment on Krypton.
EradicatorAction Comics Annual #2 (1989)A powerful artificial intelligence from Krypton, the Eradicator program initially sought to transform and terraform Earth into a New Krypton. Since then, it has merged with human scientist David Conner, serving as a replacement Superman after the Man of Steel’s apparent death and later as an ally to Superman himself.
Faora Hu-UlAction Comics #471 (May 1977)A Kryptonian martial artist and man-hater who was sent to the Phantom Zone for murdering several men, she is able to beat Superman using her knowledge of Klurkor, a Kryptonian martial art enabling the user to immobilize an opponent via pressure points (this character was used as the basis of General Zod’s lover, Zaora).
General ZodAdventure Comics #283 (April 1961)General Dru-Zod is one of Superman’s more prominent enemies. Once the Military Director of the Kryptonian Space Center, Zod had personally known Jor-El when he was an aspiring scientist. Zod attempted to take over Krypton using a machine that produced Bizarro-like duplicates during a period of turmoil caused by the termination of the space program; he was sentenced to the Phantom Zonefor 40 years for his crimes. Zod was first released by Kal-El (during his Superboy career) when his term of imprisonment was up. However, he attempted to conquer Earth with powers gained under the yellow sun. Zod was sent back into the Phantom Zone, occasionally escaping to target Superman.
Adventures of Superman#444 (September 1988)A General Zod based on the previous version created by the Time Trapper in a pocket dimension.
Superman vol. 2, #166 (January 2001)Head of the Kryptonian military in an alternate reality created by Brainiac 13.
Action Comics #779 (July 2001)A Russian child that during an experiment developed powers similar to Superman, but where Zod gains power from red sunlight and becomes weak in yellow. He made contact with an otherworldly Zod that inspired him to face Superman.
Superman vol. 2, #204 (June 2004)Created from the artificial Metropia constructed by Superman that claimed to be from Krypton.
Action Comics #845 (January 2007)Following Jor-El’s belief that Krypton was doomed and attempted to usurp the ruling council, Zod and his compatriots Non and Ursa were captured and sentenced to the Phantom Zone with Jor-El their jailer. Having escaped the Phantom Zone with his allies, Zod’s new objective is to reclaim his son, Lor-Zod, who is currently in Superman and Lois Lane‘s custody (under the alias of “Chris Kent).”
GogThe Kingdom #1 (February 1999)In a possible future timeline, a boy called William was the sole survivor of the destruction of Kansas in a nuclear blast. Saved by Superman, he came to view the Man of Steel as a savior and became a minister of a church devoted to him. When Superman tried to correct this misguided view, William came to see him as instead a demon whose failure led to Kansas’ destruction. Empowered by the cosmic beings known as the Quintessence, Gog has traveled across the dimensions of Hypertime, slaying versions of Superman wherever he finds them.
ImperiexSuperman #153 (February 2000)An all-powerful force of nature whose purpose is destroying galaxies, planning to create a new universe. Eventually, Superman, Steel, and Darkseid stopped Imperiex by using Doomsday as an ally, along with a powerful weapon called the Entropy Aegis.
IntergangSuperman’s Pal Jimmy Olsen#133 (October 1970)A nationwide organized crime syndicate armed with weapons supplied in part by Darkseid, led byBruno Mannheim.
Jax-Ur(Pre-Crisis) Adventure Comics #289 (October 1961)Jax-Ur was an amoral and criminally deviant scientist on the planet Krypton. He was imprisoned in the Phantom Zone for destroying Wegthor, one of the Krypton’s inhabited (Population: 500) moons while experimenting with a nuclear warhead-equipped rocket. Jax-Ur’s intention was to launch and test-fire it against a passing space rock. If this test proved successful, Jax-Ur would then commence the build-up of a massive personal nuclear arsenal with which he would overthrow the Kryptonian government, and place the entire planet under his dominion. (In the World of Krypton miniseries, he is shown test-launching a nuclear missile, intended to destroy a space rock, but a collision with a spaceship piloted by Jor-El sent it off-course.) Because of this, space travel was forbidden. He calls himself “the worst criminal in the Phantom Zone”. His sentence for his act of mass murder is life imprisonment. In his first appearance, he managed to escape from the Phantom Zone, and posed as a super-powered version of Jonathan Kent. Superboy eventually sent Jax-Ur back to the Phantom Zone. Most of his later Silver Age appearances show him in his ghostly Phantom Zone form. Jax-Ur did not appear after the Crisis on Infinite Earths for some time, as until the recent appearance of Supergirl there was a rule that no Kryptonians survived except Superman. However, in one story he shows some honour, as he is released to help Superman defeat a criminal who caused Krypton’s destruction and allows himself to be sent back.
(Post-Crisis) Action Comics#846 (February 2007)He is one of the criminals unleashed from the Phantom Zone by Zod. In the current continuity, Jax-Ur destroyed Krypton’s moon during an attempt at interstellar space travel. When the moon was destroyed Brainiac became aware of Krypton and attacked Kandor killing millions and put the city into a bottle. Jax-Ur subsequently became the first prisoner banished to the Phantom Zone. Jax-Ur is shown to be of the Science guild, is bald, and has one eye. He is part of General Zod’s sleeper agents on Earth. He is currently employed by S.T.A.R. Labs as a scientist. Jax-Ur appeared in Superman: The Animated Series, where he was voiced by Ron Perlman. He was portrayed more like Zod, a military genius who had attempted to overthrow the Science Council. His co-conspirator, and possible lover, is a beautiful Kryptonian female with long white hair named Mala (based on Ursa and Faora).
Kryptonite ManSuperboy #83 (September 1960)A teenage delinquent who passed through a cloud of Kryptonite and gained super powers.
Superman vol. 2, #43 (May 1990)A clone of Superman mutated by Kryptonite exposure created by Simyan and Mokkari.
Superman/Batman #20 (December 2005)An energy being formed from the latent energy of Major Force combining with the energy from the Kryptonite meteor Captain Atom sacrificed himself to keep from destroying the Earth. This being could hop between bodies, taking a body over and emanate Kryptonite radiation.
Superman #650 (May 2006)A scientist looking for a way to turn Kryptonite into a fuel source; he arrogantly ignores any dangers and is turned into the Kryptonite Man.
Lex LuthorAction Comics #23 (May 1940)Superman‘s archenemy and the consummate evil genius. He continues to play different roles in various Superman comics and media. In his classic Silver Age incarnation, Lex Luthor and Superman were once friends, but a lab accident indirectly caused by Superman (then Superboy) caused Lex’s hair to fall out completely. This event causes Luthor to snap and become a dangerous criminal who plots the destruction of Superman.

 

In the modern era, Lex Luthor was re-envisioned as a wealthy CEO/scientist who hides hissociopathic tendencies behind a mask of philanthropy. Although beloved by the people of Metropolisfor his many public works, Superman knows the truth. In the mainstream comic series, Luthor eventually manipulates his way to the U.S. Presidency, but is forcibly unseated from office by Superman and the Justice League.

LoboOmega Men #3 (June 1983)bounty hunter, the last member of the alien Czarnian race.
MetalloAction Comics #252 (May 1959)Former mercenary John Corben was transformed into a powerful cyborg with a heart of kryptonite. He seeks to use this power source as the instrument of Superman’s downfall.
Superman #310 (April 1977)Roger Corben, John Corben’s brother, had his brain transferred into a similar robotic body as his brother by SKULL.
MongulDC Comics Presents #27 (November 1980)Ruler of the gladiatorial planet Warworld, Mongul’s strength rivals that of Superman and he has often attempted to break the Man of Steel. He was slain by the demon Neron.
(unnamed) Showcase ’95 #8 (September 1995)
(as Mongul) Superman vol. 2, #151 (December 1999)
Mongul’s son who has since taken up the mantle, as has his daughter Mongal.
Morgan EdgeSuperman’s Pal Jimmy Olsen#133 (October 1970)A corrupt corporate executive, he tried to take control of Intergang and organized the post-Crisis iteration of the Superman Revenge Squad.
Mister MxyzptlkSuperman #30 (September 1944)An imp from the fifth dimension, Mr. Mxyzptlk possesses nigh-limitless reality-bending powers, which he often uses to pose challenges to Superman for his own amusement.
ParasiteAction Comics #340 (August 1966)Raymond Maxwell Jensen is a worker at a research plant that stumbles upon waste collected by Superman and is transformed into a purple-skinned monster that lives off the energy of others.
Firestorm, the Nuclear Man#58 (April 1987)Rudy Jones, a S.T.A.R. Labs janitor, is manipulated by Darkseid into a similar situation that created the original Parasite becoming like him, becoming green-skinned (however his skin eventually became purple, like the original Parasite, due to attempts by doctors to cure his condition).
Phantom ZonecriminalsAdventure Comics #283 (April 1961)Pre-Crisis, these were Kryptonian criminals imprisoned in a dimension called the “Phantom Zone”, in which they only existed in a ghostlike form; this allowed them to survive the destruction of Krypton. Various such criminals would sometimes escape and attack Superman.
PranksterAction Comics #51 (August 1942)Oswald Loomis, the Prankster’s particular gimmick was the use of various practical jokes and gags in committing his crimes. In the early 2000s, he began using high tech weaponry.
Professor HamiltonAdventures of Superman#424 (January 1987)Emil Hamilton, a mad scientist from S.T.A.R. Labs; he spent years as Superman’s ally but later turned evil and joined the Secret Society of Supervillains.
SinestroGreen Lantern vol. 2, #7 (August 1961)One of the greatest Green Lanterns there ever was, Sinestro was corrupted by power and banned from the Green Lantern Crops by the Guardians of the Universe. Upon achieving his ultimate goal of exposing and bringing justice to the corruption of the Guardians, Sinestro has relegated himself to self-exile as penance for the many actions and sins he has committed over time in order to save anyone else from participating and therefore sharing in his guilt. He currently controls Parallax, the fear entity.
Silver BansheeAction Comics #595 (December 1987)A Gaelic woman trapped in a Limbo for decades by magic after she was double-crossed by a clan chief, then emerged with magic powers and vowed to track down his descendants for revenge. Her scream drains the life out of others.
Solomon GrundyAll-American Comics #61 (October 1944)Miser Cyrus Gold was drowned in a magic swamp, and emerged several decades later as an undead monster with incredible strength.
Superman #319 (January 1978)Created by the Parasite from slime the original Grundy came into contact with.
Superboy-PrimeDC Comics Presents #87 (November 1985)Clark Kent was born on a parallel world that was destroyed during the Crisis on Infinite Earths, Superboy-Prime was trapped outside time for decades. However, his faith in Earth’s heroes was destroyed by decades of their mistakes, and he emerged from a pocket dimension to try to replace Superman.
Terra-ManSuperman #249 (March 1972)A fanatic environmentalist and former businessman with no real superpowers that used advanced technology to give himself abilities.
TitanoSuperman #127 (February 1959)A colossal ape with kryptonite eye-beams. Post-Crisis, he was a test monkey transformed by a genetic experiment gone awry.
ToymanAction Comics #64 (September 1943)The Toyman (Winslow Schott) uses toy-based or toy-themed devices and gimmicks in his various crimes. The Toyman’s weapons, while sometimes comical, are also very dangerous. The Toyman first appeared in animated form on Challenge of the Superfriends, as part of the arch villain supergroup, the Legion of Doom, where he donned a jesters outfit. Toyman was a recurring villain in Superman: The Animated Series, where he wore an overgrown fiberglass child’s head with a creepy blank expression on it over his own head. Toyman also appears in seasons 8 and 9 of Smallville as an overweight technogeek trying to destroy Luthorcorp and the Daily Planet in attempts to kill Oliver Queen who had fired Winslow from Queen Industries.
Ultra-HumaniteAction Comics #13 (July 1939)The Ultra-Humanite is the first supervillain faced by Superman and one of the first of the Golden Age of Comics. He was designed to be the polar opposite of the Man of Steel: while Superman is a hero with superhuman strength, Ultra-Humanite is a criminal mastermind who has a crippled body but a highly advanced intellect. Siegel and Shuster retired the Ultra-Humanite as Superman’s archfoe when Lex Luthor was introduced into the Superman comic. Humanite was retired for several decades only to return with Superman (Earth-Two) and the Justice Society of America the targets of his machinations. The Ultra-Humanite has developed a process of transplanting his mind into different bodies, first doing this with actress Dolores Winters when he was nearly killed, most famously with an albino ape, and also with Johnny Thunder.
UltramanJustice League of America#29 (August 1964)An evil counterpart of Superman from an alternate Earth, Ultraman possesses powers similar to Superman’s. Post-Crisis, Ultraman’s power source is through exposure to Anti-Kryptonite instead of his Earth’s yellow sun. Ultraman is a member of the Crime Syndicate of America, a villainous version of the Justice League indigenous to his universe. His power levels are equal to Superman’s as long as his exposure to Anti-Kryptonite is regularly maintained; if he is away from it for too long his power levels drop and lessen.

Minor Villains

VillainFirst appearanceDescription
Aarbur-ZAction Comics #383 (December 1969)Disembodied intelligence inhabiting super-powered costume, pursued by similar entity Enforcer NZ-2, attempted to possess Superman.
AethyrThe Phantom Zone #3 (March 1982)A godlike entity from the Phantom Zone that’s created from the fusion of millions of souls.
AdversaryAdventures of Superman #579 (June 2000)Wheelchair-bound Cary Richards is a young child neighbor of Clark and Lois who made a deal with the demon Lord Satanis to gain psionic powers, subconsciously becoming a stereotypical macho 1990s supervillain (musclebound, wearing leather with metal spikes, spouting profanities, chewing a cigar) named Adversary that wanted to develop a reputation defeating Superman in similar fashion as Doomsday.
Alex EvellSuperman #5 (Summer 1940)Corrupt politician who forces publisher Zachary Collum to sell the Morning Pictorial to him to help him take over the city. He uses it to lie about his enemies, and when Daily Planet Publisher Burt Mason refuses to stop a story by Clark Kent about his lies and won’t sell the paper he declares war against the Planet. His men attack delivery trucks, steal papers and attack those selling them, but Superman helps the Planet and stops the thugs. Knowing Superman is fond of Lois he calls her to say Clark has been badly injured and is calling for Lois at Bentley Hospital. When she gets to the hospital she is kidnapped although Superman follows. Bentley sets the place on fire, despite two of his gang being in there, but Superman escapes, rescues the gangsters and stops Evel’s car. Bentley says he won’t talk, but the thugs say they will to get even with him. Superman leaves them at a Police Station, Collum gets his paper back, and Evell goes to prison.
Amalak[3]Superman #190 (October 1966)Alien bounty hunter whose planet was once conquered by Krypton during an imperial phase
Superman #669 (December 2007)His people wiped out by Admiral Zod, Amalak dedicated his life to eradicating all Kryptonian life from existence.
Amazing GraceSuperman vol. 2, #3 (March 1987)A servant of Darkseid, she uses her powers of persuasion to maintain his control of Apokolips.
AmazoThe Brave and the Bold #30 (June 1960)An android with powers similar to those of the Parasite, except that he replicate their abilities instead of absorbing them
AmokSuperman: The 10¢ Adventure(2003)It is known that he was born in Iceland, but how he achieved his metahuman super-strength and energy powers is not yet known
the Amphi-BanditsAction Comics #90 (November 1945)Inventor-turned-criminal Horace Rikker led this gang who evaded police pursuit via a secret submersible vehicle in a Metropolis river.
AndrarSuperboy #164 (April 1970)Superboy enemy, led Crab Nebulan attempt to invade Earth with android duplicates.
Annihilator and Annihilator jr.Action Comics #355-357Defecting scientist from the Iron curtain, he utilized Kryptonian explosives, briefly ruled the US. As the madness of his condition faded, his adopted son took a drink of the explosives and gained similar powers.
AnomalyAdventures of Superman #539 (October 1996)Created by Project Cadmus, a clone of a felon. However, he was altered to have the power to mimic the substance of his surroundings
the ArcherSuperman #13 (December 1941)Quigley, first name unrevealed. Extortionist archer who targets millionaires, shooting them with a bow and arrow if they do not pay. Superman starts to pursue him and prevents him shooting Lois and Jimmy. He is revealed to be a hunter who decided to hunt humans instead of animals.
AuctioneerAction Comics #841 (September 2006)A gigantic alien that uses advanced technology to collect valuable items and beings to auction to the highest bidder.
Baron SundaySuperman vol. 2, #26 (December 1988)A villain who uses Voodoo magic against the Man of Steel.
BarrageSuperman Annual vol. 2, #2 (1988)Karnowsky is an armored criminal that came into conflict with Superman when he attacked Maggie Sawyer and would go on to join the Superman Revenge Squad.
BaudSuperman: Man of Steel #71 (September 1997)A female energy being that worked for Mainframe as a spy and fought Superman as part of the Superman Revenge Squad.
Big DomeBatman #307 (January 1979)Large-headed purple-skinned being, possible extraterrestrial, planned planetary conquest from Earth base, defeated by Superman with civilian assistance.
Blackie SartoNew York World’s Fair Comics #2 (1940)A jewel thief who enters the World Fair in an attempt to steal the Madras Emerald, one of the World’s biggest Jewels which is being delivered from India. Clark Kent recognises him and tells Lois Lane, and when she tells him Pinkerton check on criminals and won’t let them on, Clark says he covered a story four years ago in London where he was a suspect, but released on lack of evidence. With his super-hearing Clark hears him talking about stealing the Madras Emerald to a thug, and tells Lois he has a hunch. Lois evades him and follows Sarto, who realises she is following and kidnaps her by seizing her and threatening to shoot her. He takes her to a car where two accomplices are waiting. Clark realises she tried following Sarto and changes into Superman. Meanwhile, Lois is taken to Sarto’s River-Front hideaway. Sarto says they will decide how to get rid of her when they get back, and Lois is left bound and gagged. Sarto’s gang throws deadly gas bombs at the armoured car delivering the Emerald while wearing gas masks, but Superman stops them despite Sarto trying to kill them all with a gas bomb. Superman saves the crooks and takes them unconscious to the police. He then flies to the building and frees Lois, then takes her to the fair and delivers the gem. He then wires the story to the Editor as Clark kent.
BlackrockAction Comics #458 (April 1976)A man equipped with an alien rock which gives him energy-manipulation powers
Blaze and SatanusAction Comics #655 (July 1990)Blaze is the half-demon daughter of the wizard Shazam.
Adventures of Superman #493 (August 1992)Lord Satanus[4] also resembled a traditional demon, save that he wore a heavy Roman-style helmet, and either had black skin or the helmet buried his face in shadow. They fought for possession of Blaze’s domain, using Superman as a pawn. At the end of the story it was revealed that Satanus was disguised as ‘Colin Thornton’, the publisher of Newstime magazine, who first appeared in Nov 1989, and had previously hired Clark Kent as editor.
BloodthirstSuperman: The Man of Steel #29 (January 1994)Bloodthirst is a very minor villain who is a massive alien creature with multiple holes on his skin that emit a green gas. His weapon appeared to be a circular device like a clock without hands that he could use to slow down or even stop time. Bloodthirst bragged throughout his first and (to date) only appearance that he was the cause of every major war and was there at every assassination. Bloodthirst was easily defeated by Superman and left Earth. Bloodthirst has not been seen or mentioned since. His storyline is similar to Cereberus who was mentioned in Superman: The Man of Steel #1 and was finally seen in #4 and not seen again.
Borden MoseleySuperman #5 (Summer 1940)A financer who is in league with Lex Luthor. Luthor places narcotics around some of the Countries most powerful men, taking control of their minds and allowing him to throw the country into depression. Moseley gets business tips from Luthor, although Luthor gets 75% of his profits. Superman finds out about Moseley and gets a list from his Safe of those under Luthor’s control, despite Moseley trying to lock him in the safe. Moseley tries to ocmmit suicide by leaping from the window, but Superman saves him. He disguises himself as Moseley by contorting his face, a power which he used to use, and infiltrates Luthor’s meeting. Luthor realises Superman is there and threatens to shoot those under his control, but Superman stops him and he apparently dies after a plane crash, although returns later. Those under his control are freed and Moseley is preseumbly arrested, although it is possible he committed suicide after Superman left.
Calvin DenbySuperman #12 (September–October 1941)After a series of explosions at American defence industries, Superman rounds up members of the Grotak Bund, an organization that has orders to destroy certain American factories to seriously slow down U.S. defence operations. Lois Lane goes to one factory but is seized by a criminal and prevented from speaking. The criminals bind her hand and foot and gag her next to dynamite, hoping her remains will be found and she will be blamed. However Superman stops the bomb in time. Lois goes to see Calvin Denby, who claims to be a patriotic American and is about to give his view on the attacks. Superman realises he is the Leader of the Grotak Bund and when Denby fires at Lois he deflects the bullet, stunning Calvin, who is jailed.
ChanduAdventure Comics #219 (December 1955)Superboy enemy, giant gorilla who gained x-ray/heat vision from drinking powdered kryptonite, employed by Doc Baird and his gang for crimes.
Colonel FutureAction Comics #484 (June 1978)Edmund H. Future uses his gang to steal the most advanced technology and employ its use in his crimes.
Superman #378 (December 1982)Edmund Hamilton is a NASA scientist who through a freak accident developed the ability to glimpse into the future by surviving near-death experiences. He uses this knowledge to develop an arsenal to steal components to prevent an event that would destroy the Earth.
Count XAction Comics #301 (June 1963)Master spy.
the Crime ProfessorSuperboy #30 (January 1954)Superboy enemy, Mr. Oates, criminal strategist.
Dabney DonovanSuperman’s Pal Jimmy Olsen #142 (October 1971)A “mad scientist” expert at genetic manipulation and cloning, former employee of Project Cadmus.
Deathtrap/Master JailerSuperman #331 (January 1979)Carl Draper, a master trapmaker, was hired to build a trap to contain the Parasite. However, when his daughter challenges him to trap Superman, he wholeheartedly accepted it. He would appear to Superman as a hologram and challenge him to escape the traps he created. Post-Crisis, his powers and skills were enhanced, and was part of an Anti-Kryptonian Brigade with Bizarro, Mongul, and Silver Banshee. He eventually (somewhat) reformed and was employed by Checkmate.
Dev-EmAdventure Comics #287 (June 1961)A surviving Kryptonian juvenile delinquent, he kidnapped Superboy and took his place. Years later he time-traveled to the future and became a law-enforcement agent
Dr. ChaosNew Adventures of Superboy #25 (January 1982)Superboy enemy, Burt Belker, Prof. Lewis Lang’s assistant, empowered and possessed by a Lord of Chaos via the Chaos Helmet from the Valley of Ur.
DominusAction Comics #747 (August 1998)An alien priest that sought the powers of Kismet and brainwashed Superman into conquering Earth.
Duke DuvvilAdventure Comics #199 (April 1954)Superboy enemy, traitorous nobleman in subterranean kingdom Subbania, sought to overthrow Queen Lya.
DuranSuperman Annual (vol. 2) #12 (August 2000)Created as part of the Planet DC annuals event, Duran is a Mexican wizard who is a member of the fictional “Oto tribe”. Disturbed by the practices of capitalist, anti-environment developers, Duran becomes their sworn enemy, and embarks on a career of eco-terrorism. He devises a plan to summon and set loose an army of monsters against the Mexican people, to punish them for the pollution they produce.[5] Duran abducts a young girl, to his base under the Plaza de la Constitución inMexico City, with the intention of using her as the focus of a magical ritual to summon the power of the Aztec god Ometeotl. His plans were foiled by Superman with the assistance of the Mexican heroes Iman, Acrata and El Muerto.
Dyna-MindNew Adventures of Superboy #42 (June 1983)Superboy enemy, Johnny Webber, granted telekinetic powers by meteor, able to create and animate giant figures.
EclipsoHouse of Secrets #61 (August 1963)The immortal incarnation of the Wrath of God and the Angel of Vengeance who is able to possess people and have a huge variety of magical powers
Effron the SorcererWorld’s Finest Comics #210 (March 1972)A sorcerer who came from the magic kingdom of Veliathan and controlled a faceless puppet army.
The Emperor of AmericaAction Comics #52 (September 1942)Power-mad individual who creates a device which emits rays that take away the will of people to resist. He blankets the nation in the rays, then with just a few henchmen, wearing helmets that make them resistant to the ray, he marches into theWhite House and declares himself Emperor of America. He takes vast amounts of wealth, and even replaces the Supreme Court with his henchmen. Only Superman remains immune, and he is finally able to stop the Emperor’s plan. The character should not be confused with the Atom (Al Pratt)‘s enemy of the same name from All-American Comics #21 (December 1940).
EquusSuperman #206 (August 2004)A villainous cyborg, working under the direction of Mr Orr as a mercenary (sometimes for covert elements of the American government)
La EncantadoraSecret Origins of Super-Villains 80-Page Giant (December 1999)Gaining magic powers from the mystical Mists of Ibella, Lourdes Lucero first encountered Superman while hypnotizing him to react adversely to fake kryptonite.
Evolution KingSuperman vol 1 #15 Mar/Apr 1942An evil scientist who has “learned how to advance or revert a human being’s age” by means of special pills. Aided by gangster Joe Glower and his henchmen, the Evolution King kidnaps prominent athletes, transforms them into helpless old men, and threatens to leave them in their decrepit condition unless they meet his extortion demands. He then starts turning people into infants. Clark realises an old man is a missing athlete due to his fingerprints. Lois Lane is with one of the athletes so is kidnapped with him, blindfolded, and driven to the base. Clark is also captured. Both he and Lois are soon tied to chairs and in the presence of the Evolution King. Goaded finally by Clark Kent into demonstrating the effects of his old-age pills by swallowing one himself, the Evolution King ages causing Lois to faint. Clark then breaks his bonds and forces the Evolution King to reveal how people can be turned back. The Evolution King perishes when, moments later, he accidentally swallows some additional aging pills instead of the intended antidote.
Faustus CovenSuperboy #175 (June 1971)Superboy enemy, patriarch of Coven family, used combination of sorcery and science to separate Superboy’s soul from his body and enslave it.
Ferlin NyxlySuperman #235 (March 1971)Former curator of the Metropolis Music Museum who on some occasions have attacked superman with the help of magical objects or alien technology he found or stole.
FuturemenSuperman #128 (April 1959)Two criminals, Vard and Boka, from the year 2000 travel back in time, and claim to an incredibly gullible FBI Chief that Superman is a criminal from their time. They capture him using Red Kryptonite, and reveal an atomic experiment has dried up Earth’s water supply and they want Superman to restore it with ice from Saturn, hoping to get billions from Earth. Superman escapes them, has them jailed by the authorities of the year 2000, and then returns to 1952.
Gaff LomarSuperboy #27 (August–September 1953)Superboy enemy, “pied piper” who mesmerized Smallville’s children into following him.
The Galactic GolemSuperman #248 (February 1972)A construct that sometimes is placed to fight Superman.
The GamblerSuperboy #140 (July 1967)Superboy enemy, “Lucky” Lucifer Chancel, gangster and obsessive gambler, engineered crises for Superboy to face, then accepted bets on results.
The GemSuperboy #19 (April–May 1952)Superboy enemy, AKA the Crystalloid, crystalline life-form that consumes all in its path.
Glowman(as Bashford) Superboy #157 (June 1969); (as Glowman) New Adventures of Superboy #30 (June 1982)Superboy enemy, Bradley “Bash” Bashford, Smallville High bully transformed into monstrous fiery form.
Goldie GatesSuperman #27 (March–April 1944 )The notorious Goldie Gates convinces Randall Rocksell that if he will invest huge sums of money with him, that Rocksell will make a half-million a day on his investment. However, Superman discovers that Rocksell is being paid dividends with his own money and Gates it is perilously close to gaining the power of attorney over Rocksell’s money and property. When Randall fully believes that Gates will make him money, he gives him access to his vault, after which Goldie takes the money. Superman sees the crooks and recognises one as Bucktooth Burger, one of Goldie Gate’s mob. Later Gate’s crooks get into Randall’s house, where he and Lois are talking. Bucktooth points a gun at Lois, and Goldie says she will be shot unless Randall signs a document giving him control over his property. Despite Lois telling him not to, Randall signs. Bucktooth then cram a cloth into Lois’s mouth to gag her, and Randall is knocked out. He comes to in an underground room with Lois next to him. Both of them are tied to a log. Goldie plans for them both to be killed by dynamite. However Superman gets to the room and stops the dynamite. Meanwhile, the crooks think that they will be unable to get out of the tunnel in time. They are relieved to see Superman, who then takes them of to jail. Randall meanwhile becomes a better person.
GraxAction Comics #342 (October 1966)Brainiac’s blue-skinned, four-armed rival featuring a 20th-level intellect (opposed to Brainiac’s 12th-level intellect) whose plots are also foiled by Superman and seeks vengeance. He also appeared in the Super Friends comic book.
HarkonSuperboy #194 (April 1973)Superboy enemy, renegade Atlantean/merman scientist, temporarily transformed Superboy into a merboy.
The HellgrammiteThe Brave and the Bold #80 (October–November 1968)Roderick Rose transforms himself into a large insect and has battled Superman several times since.
The HostSuperman #6 (June 1987)A construct containing the souls of a long-lost prehuman race[6]
IllenaSuperman’s Girl Friend, Lois Lane#52 (October 1964)Alien woman, romanced Superman with intent to turn him into stone.
IgnitionAdventures of Superman #582 (September 2000)Created by the Joker after he stole the powers of Mr Mxyzptlk.
Insect Queen(Pre-Crisis, Earth-One) Superboy#124 (October 1965)
(Pre-Crisis, Earth-Two) Superman Family #213 (December 1981)
(Post-Crisis) Superman #671 (February 2008)
Pre-Crisis, Earth-One Lana Lang saves an alien that gives her a ring that offered her the powers of any insect or arachnid and becomes a superhero. Post-Crisis, Earth-Two Lana Lang receives a magical scarab from her archaeological father that possesses her and offers the power to enlarge and control insects becoming a supervillain. Post-Crisis, Insect Queen is an alien that assists Lex Luthor in return for his assistance into colonizing Earth. She uses Lana Lang’s DNA to make a new body mixed with her own genetic material. She would later return possessing Lana’s body.
J. Wilbur Wolfingham[7]Superman #26 (January/February 1944)A notorious confidence man whose elaborate schemes are interfered with by Superman to profit his victim while he is left with nothing. On one occasion he placed oil in a well to con the Eden Farming Community, an area recently hit by a tornado. He then bought the land and claimed that there was an oil well on it, after which the locals paid in cash for shares in it. Lois and Clark told them who Wilbur really was then, and they started searching the area for him. Lois found him in a barn and told him to give himself up, but he seized her, covering her mouth to prevent her speaking. He then bound and gagged her and lowered her into the well. He said she would probably be found before she starved but by then he would be gone. He then hid in a haystack but a match dropped by him set the oil alight. The flames then started burning through the rope holding Lois up. Clark saw where she was with his X-ray vision, changed into Superman, and saved her just as the rope snapped. He then burrowed underground to escape the explosion from the layer of oil, freed Lois, then found a genuine oil well which he diverted to the town. After this he captures Wilbur, who was stuck in the burning haystack, and makes him return the money to the people, who will now become rich due to the oil.
J.E. CurtisSuperman #4 (Spring 1940)An agent paid by a foreign power to stop the Nation’s return to prosperity, which is happening after the depression. His men cause incidents in industry to cause strikes. Superman investigates and stops the attacks. He gets to the Boss, who tries to poison him, then when Superman is not killed, he tells Superman about Curtis. Curtis is about to make a call to agentsi n the stock market to cause the worst depression in American history, but Superman enters with the other crook. Curtis kills the man with a device that fires electrical bolts, and tries to kill Superman after Superman refuses his offer to join him. But Superman is unharmed and touches Curtis, electrocuting and killing him.
KalibakNew Gods #1 (February 1971)The son of Darkseid, a born villain.
KancerAction Comics #777 (May 2001)Created from a sliver of kryptonite-induced cancer at the behest of the Russian Zod
KhyberSuperman #657 (December 2006)Hassan-I-Sabbah, leader of the Hashshashin assassins, is a shadowy figure behind world politics, steering humanity to fall under his rule in the future. Arion reveals to Superman that his presence on Earth has weakened humanity against future threats and in the future, after Superman falls to the cybernetically enhanced Khyber, humanity will die out because of this weakness.
King KosmosDC Comics Presents Annual #2 (1983)A time-traveling despot from the future who comes to the present in order to conquer it. His efforts are halted by Superman and the mysterious Superwoman, who also makes her premier appearance and is, in reality, time-traveler Kristin Wells.
KlaxxuSuperman Family #197 (September–October 1979)Superboy enemy, extraterrestrial exiled to Earth for attempting to overthrow his planet’s government, posed as teacher at Smallville High, used mild-melder device in attempt to convince Superboy he was Klaxxu’s fellow subversive.
KokraNew Adventures of Superboy #2 (February 1980)Superboy enemy, Middle Eastern demon who possessed Prof. Lewis Lang (Lana’s father).
Kosmon the HunterAdventure Comics #266 (November 1959)Superboy enemy, alien hunter, captured Krypto and used shapechanging protoplasm creature to lure Superboy into battle.
KronnAdventure Comics #308 (May 1963)Superboy enemy, criminal Atlantean scientist, allied with Luthor transmit mass hypnotic illusions to Smallville.
Kru-El[8]Superman’s Pal Jimmy Olsen #62 (July 1962)In most settings, Superman’s villainous cousin.
The KryptonoidSuperman #328 (October 1978)A protoplasmic entity that sought revenge against Jor-El by seeking out his son and merging with a Superman Robot and General D.W. Derwent (who blamed Superman for the loss of his arm).
Kuku and NarduSuperboy #167 (July 1970)Superboy enemies, circus performers and criminals, used robot elephant to commit crimes.
KyackSuperman #13 (November–December 1941)Warrior of subterranean kingdom descended from pre-Ice Age civilization, sought to conquer surface world, destroyed buildings in prelude to invasion.
Lady LunarWorld’s Finest Comics #266 (January 1981)Stacy Macklin was exposed to the same radiation as the Moonman to become Lady Lunar and troubled Metropolis. It would take the efforts of Superman and Batman to stop her.
LashinaMister Miracle #6 (January 1972)A member of Darkseid’s Female Furies
The Laughing Gas BanditsAdventure Comics #484 (August 1981)Three men, used nitrous oxide laced with kryptonite in effort to immobilize Metropolis.
The LeaderAdventure Comics #277 (October 1960)Superboy enemy, with two fellow aliens, fought duel with Superboy, with potential invasion of Earth as the stakes.
LeliaSuperman #13 (December 1941)An agent of a foreign power. Scientist Charle Pierson invents a weapon, but is captured by agents of a foreign power,tortured and killed. His wife Clara leaves their baby with Clark Kent so the agents won’t capture him and get the plans from her, along with a note saying she will get the baby soon. Superman stops the first kidnap attempt, but Lelia then appears claiming to be the mother and takes the baby. The mother turns up soon after, and tells Clark what has happened. She gets a phone call telling her to come to a location, which Superman follows her to. She is held prisoner by the villains, and tells them the plans are hidden inside the baby’s rattle, which is still in the flat. When the agents leave, Superman leaps in, overpowers Lelia, and after binding and gagging her, waits for the agents. The agents return to the apartment and seize Lois Lane, preventing her from speaking. However they are captured, and the plans are given to the government. Lelia and the other agents are probably jailed.
The LeopardSuperman #20 (January–February 1943)Sam Kennedy, publicity manager for Cosmos Circus, wore leopard’s-head mask during crime spree in which he and his gang used packs of big cats to commit crimes.
The Lightning MasterSuperman #14 (January–February 1942)A villain who learns how to control lightning, and tries to ransom Metropolis for $300,000. He captures Lois Lane twice, first when she goes to hear his ransom demand she tries to unmask him, but is captured by him and bound hand and foot to a chair. He tries to send electrical bolts at the house to kill her, but Superman rescues her. The second time he straps her into an electric chair as he prepares to attack Metropolis for not paying the ransom. However Superman stops this, and in the fight the Lightning Master is electrocuted and killed.
LoopholeAdventures of Superman #505 (October 1993)Deke Dickson, a former S.T.A.R. Labs employee, uses technology to open up portals that act as a tunnel through matter.
Lorac-K7Adventure Comics #250 (July 1958)Superboy enemy, criminal descendant of Lana Lang, traveled back in time from 2958 to steal cobalt for a cobalt bomb, impersonating Lana while doing so.
Lord Satanis and SyreneAction Comics #527 (January 1982)Living in a time millions of years from now where magic has taken the place of science, Lord Satanis led a revolt of sorcerers against the powerful Queen Ambra and killed her. However, he was denied the right to possess her runestone of Merlin when she cast it into the past, out of his reach. Satanis would marry Ambra’s daughter Syrene (whom she had with Merlin), who also sought possession of the runestone. Both would eventually find the spells necessary to follow the item and both face Superman who was needed as a component to use it. The couple would struggle over the item until finally returning to their time period.
The LumberjackWonder Woman #268 (June 1980) 
LylaAction Comics #812 (April 2004)A telepath that pulled Superman into Kandor and stole his powers to escape in hopes of making the people of Earth worship her as a god.
Maaldor the DarklordDC Comics Presents #56 (April 1983)An other-dimensional being of incalculable power that wanted to test his strength against Superman and Power Girl. When it became clear Maaldor was too powerful, Superman tricked him into destroying himself. Maaldor would return repeatedly, ofttimes seemingly resurrecting from destruction, to face Superman and later the Green Lantern Corps. He finally perished for good in Crisis on Infinite Earths and has not been seen since.
MagpieThe Man of Steel #3 (November 1986)A master jewel thief who targets gems named after birds and replaces them with booby-trapped replicas
Malleable Man(as Skizzle Shanks) Plastic Man #17 (April/May 1977)
(as Malleable Man) DC Comics Presents #93 (May 1986)
A criminal present when Plastic Man gained his powers, Skizzle Shanks later recreated the process to make himself malleable. He manipulated Plastic Man, Elongated Man, and Elastic Lad to battle Superman.
Manchester BlackAction Comics #775 (March 2001)A British telepath and antihero, he dislikes what he perceives as Superman’s simplistic view of the world and becomes obsessed with twisting and destroying Superman’s morality. He later learns Superman’s true identity and manipulates a large group of super-villains to attack Superman and his known family/friends/associates. When even this manipulation, climaxed with tricking Superman into thinking he has killed Lois Lane, fails to break Superman’s spirit, he retreats completely and ends his life over the anguish of his failure.
MartinAction Comics #29 (October 1940)Clark and Lois investigates the Fullerton Insurance Company, which is selling small valued policies to poor people, who end up dying under mysterious circumstances. Lois investigates, but as she climbs through the widow she is seized by one of two thugs. One, called Tom Bruce, orders the other to tie her to a chair, which happens, and Lois is also gagged. The criminals decide to eliminate her as she can recognise them. But before the criminals eliminate her, Superman gets in and saves her, though the crooks are jailed they are bailed out. Fullerton goes to Martin, who shoots him, revealing he was causing the events. But Superman then gets Martin and he is jailed.
The MaskWorld’s Finest Comics #66 (September–October 1953)Harry “King” Saphire, crime czar who wore a lead mask as part of an elaborate scheme to frame Superman for his crimes.
the Masked StuntmanAdventure Comics #165 (June 1951)Superboy enemy, Flip Wilson, acrobatic criminal using stuntman school as a front.
MassacreAdventures of Superman #509 (February 1994)An alien warrior who traveled space as energy seeking a worthy opponent, he died during the Our Worlds at War crossover.
The Mechanical MasterSuperman Family #193 (January–February 1979)Superboy enemy, able to animate machines to do his bidding.
MediniAction Comics #25 (June 1940)A great Asian hypnotist who performs crimes using his hypnotism to make people forget of them. When he meets Superman, the Man of Steel is weakened by his hypnotic power, and is unable to control his powers properly, while Medini leaves with a captive hypnotized Lois Lane, planning to rob a gold shipment to Kentucky from a plane. Superman leaps through the stratosphere, then suddenly down again, the swift descent and sudden atmospheric change restoring his mind to normal. He then stops the plane Medini has robbed from crashing and tells the police where the loot is hidden. It is unknown what happened to Medini, as he is not mentioned to have been arrested or escaped, although Superman is shown throwing the emptied plane onto some of his henchmen, so possibly Medini was also killed.
Microwave ManAction Comics #487 (September 1978)Lewis Padgett was a supervillain named Microwave Man in the 1930s that traveled with aliens through space for 40 years returning to Earth as an old man. Padgett convinced the aliens to return his youth although it meant he only had hours to live. His final wish was to defeat Superman which the hero granted so that Padgett could die happy.
MightoSuperboy #108 (October 1963)Superboy enemy, AKA Tim Tates, super-powered alien youth briefly adopted by Kents prior to their adoption of Kal-El, became spacefaring criminal, returned years later to battle Superboy.
Mind’s-EyeNew Adventures of Superboy(December 1982)Superboy enemy, seized mental control of Smallville High student body and channeled their energies to empower himself to fight Superboy.
Mr. Cipher(s)Superboy #150 (September 1968)Superboy enemies, lookalike robots, equipped with explosives, attempted to take over Smallville on behalf of alien Cybor.
Mr. ElectronicsSuperboy #73 (June 1959)Superboy enemy, criminal scientist, employed mind-reading device.
Mr. MigraineMore Fun Comics #106 (November–December 1945)Superboy enemy, racketeer.
Mr. OhmSuperman #51 (March–April 1948)Used electromagnetic plane to draw armored cars into air and take them to gang’s hideout to loot at leisure.
Mr. SinisterSuperman #16 (May–June 1942)Real name Lylo. Purple-skinned denizen of the Fourth Dimension, would-be conqueror and failed poet, used advanced technology to abduct buildings with inhabitants to hold for ransom.
Mr. ZSuperman vol. 2, #51 (January 1991)A mysterious immortal who seeks to trap famous people from history in a mystical crystal. He attempts to entrap Superman, but the Man of Steel manages to destroy the crystal.
MomentusSuperman, vol. 1, #355 (January 1981)Asa Ezaak was a noted author (based on legendary science-fiction writer Isaac Asimov) who could transform into a water-like being capable of controlling gravity after injecting himself with his created potion “Ezaakis.” Kidnapping Ezaak fan Jimmy Olsen because he erroneously thought he was being investigatied by him, Momentus died in battle with Superman.
Mongal(unnamed) Showcase ’95 #8 (September 1995)
(as Mongal) Superman vol. 2, #170 (July 2001)
The daughter of the interstellar tyrant Mongul.
Moon-Man/MoonmanWorld’s Finest Comics #98 (December 1958)Superman assists the military by launching astronaut Brice Rogers to travel around the moon. When Rogers returns to Earth, under the rays of the Moon, he transforms into the supervillain Moonman and menaces Superman, Batman, and Robin.
the MummerAdventure Comics #148 (January 1950)Superboy enemy, costumed criminal, ex-vaudevillian, committed crimes with three “robot dummies.”
Nam-EkSuperman #282 (December 1974)A Kryptonian that murdered a sacred Rondor to develop an elixir for immortality. While it worked, Nam-Ek was transformed into a foul purple behemoth with a horn protruding from his forehead and was sentenced to the Phantom Zone for his crime. He would escape and battle Superman.
the Negative SuperboySuperboy #168 (September 1970)Superboy enemy, negative-energy duplicate of Superboy created in cosmic accident.
NeutronAction Comics #525 (November 1981)Nathaniel Tryon was a petty thug and a member of the TNT trio before an accident transformed him into living nuclear energy.
the NjllnansNew Adventures of Superboy #40 (April 1983)Superboy enemies, N’ll, Vrt, and others attempted to make Superboy into a “living robot” as their pawn in conquering Earth.
N.R.G.-X(Pre-Crisis) Superman #339 (September 1979); (Post-Crisis)Superman/Batman #68 (March 2010)Pre-Crisis: Grant Haskill was transformed into a living robot by an explosion. At one point, he accidentally turned the Man of Steel into actual steel.

 

Post-Crisis: Miguel Diaz and Ray Ryker were two physicists until a nuclear experiment goes wrong. Diaz is caught in an explosion that transfers his essence into the mechanical being, N.R.G.-X (Nuclear Radiation Generator Experimental). Confused and trying to escape, he confronts Superman encasing him in a steel shell. N.R.G.-X attempts to go after Ryker. Breaking free, Superman once again confronts N.R.G.-X who self-destructs in the process, reverting to a comatose Daiz.

Nylor TruggsNew Adventures of Superboy #50 (February 1984)Superboy enemy, 30th century criminal, stole “Dial H for Hero” dial from museum and traveled back in time to ally with teen Lex Luthor; used dial-created super-identities Cyclone, Landslide, Smasher, and High-Roller.
NzykmulkSuperman #421 (July 1986)Mr Mxyzptlk’s deranged cousin from the same fifth dimension with magical powers surpassing even Mr Mxyzptlk’s own. Although through human eyes looks identical to Mr Mxyzptlk, according to Mxyzptlk that’s far from the truth. Escaping from the fifth dimension’s mental institution equivalent of a madhouse (Gooloogog), Nzykmulk’s greater 5th dimension powers stems from several more years of experience in comparison to his cousin, 42-Joljo’s (years?) difference with his greater age. Appeared only once during the last pre-Crisis era days to cause Superman and Mxyzptlk problems while trapping them both within the fifth dimension itself.
ObsessionAdventures of Superman #532 (February 1996)A disturbed fan of Superman, Dana Dearden stole magical objects to gain powers to be Superman’s partner and lover, beating Jimmy Olsen until he gave her his signal watch. Dubbing herself Superwoman, Olsen instead called her Obsession and she would eventually give her life to save Superman.
the OrbitronsBatman #312 (June 1979)Floating globe-like aliens residing “somewhere in the outermost galaxy, used magnetic rays to plunder gold and abduct Earth scientists until dissuaded by Superman.
OtharSuperboy #101 (December 1962)Superboy enemy, abducted Superboy and other super-heroes to planet Thrann.
Pee Wee RaganSuperboy #110 (January 1964)Superboy enemy, scrawny criminal, received duplicate Superboy powers from Prof. Sardon.
the PlaneteerSuperman #387 (September 1983)AKA King Alexander. Alexander Mason was a child prodigy who became the world’s leading magnetism expert at a very young age; however, he was also a megalomaniac who believed that he was the reincarnation of Alexander the Great and that it was his destiny to conquer the world. As the Planeteer, he used advanced magnetic field technology to abduct world leaders. When Superman rescued them, he destroyed the magnetic machines, unaware that by doing so, he was channeling their power directly into the Planeteer, who thus gained superhuman magnetic abilities. He later teamed up with Zazzala theQueen Bee.
PovraNew Adventures of Superboy #20 (August 1981)Superboy enemy, beautiful woman from planet Ulmara, abducted Superboy and brainwashed him to be a tourist attraction on Ulmara.
PredatorSuperman vs. PredatorDC ComicsCrossover mini-series (May–July 2000)A space hunter from the 1987 horror film Predator directed by John McTiernan. The Predators are depicted as large, sapient and sentient humanoid creatures who possess advanced technology, such as active camouflage and energy weapons, and are capable of interstellar travel.
PreusSuperman vol. 2, #202 (April 2004)Formerly a law enforcement officer from the bottle city of Kandor, he escaped the city and hunts Superman.
Prof. Amos WeldonSuperboy #53 (December 1956)Superboy enemy, criminal scientist, his time-ray inadvertently caused Superboy to change places in time with Superman.
Professor SandsAction Comics #178 (March 1953)AKA the Sandman of Crime; proprietor of the Dreamorama, a theater which, via what might today be considered virtual realitytechnology, allowed demoralized criminals to live out their greatest criminal fantasies in “dream films.”
Professor XSuperboy #69 (December 1958)Superboy enemies, two criminals using single identity as mob boss.
Professor ZeeSuperman #8 (January–February 1941)An evil scientist who creates a formula that turns people into giants. He causes chaos around the country, kidnapping a powerful figure and threatening to turn his daughter into a giant. However he is killed in an accident caused by the Giants. He is not to be confused with the Professor Zee who created the time machine used by Per Degaton.
Psi-Phon and Dreadnaught[9]Superman vol. 2, #19 (July 1988)Psi-Phon drained Superman’s powers and gave them to Dreadnaught.
PulsarNew Adventures of Superboy #31 (July 1982)Superboy enemy, Robert Altus Jr., empowered by obsessed scientist father to supplant Superboy.
The PuzzlerAction Comics #49 (June 1942)A criminal obsessed with games and puzzles, he fought Superman after he tried to start a protection racket.
Superman #187 (December 2002)Valerie Van Haften is made-up of living puzzle pieces, able to move and reconstruct herself at will.
QuarmerSuperman # 233 (January 1971)Originally a non-corporeal being from a realm called the Quarrm Dimension, it entered our dimension where it built itself a body of sand and over time drained Superman’s powers, gradually turning into a sandmade doppelganger of Superman.
Quex-UlSuperman #157 (November 1962)A Kryptonian criminal and inmate of the Phantom Zone. Usually a henchman of General Zod.
R24Superman #71 (July–August 1951)Leader of a uranium-smuggling ring.
the Rainbow RaiderSuperboy #84 (October 1960)Superboy enemy; the Rainbow Raider identity was originally used by Jonathan Kent to impersonate a super-villain as part of an elaborate scheme for Superboy to capture gangster Vic Munster and his henchmen; later, Munster himself used the Rainbow Raider identity but was again defeated.
the RainmakerWorld’s Best Comics #1 (Spring 1941)Used rain-machine to destroy dam and flood valley as part of extortion scheme, briefly weakened Superman with “radical new paralysis gas.”
Ralph CowanAction Comics #41 (October 1941)A respectable figure who has been paid to case sabotage around the nation. One of his agents, Steve Grant, places a bomb inside a plant. He is one of three employees who took the day off, and is tracked down by Superman. Cowan tries to kill him to stop him talking, but Superman foils the attempts. He hears of a wave of sabotage across the nation. Cowan, angry at the Daily Planet writing down stories of the sabotage, gets into the Planet, and when Lois meets him he claims to be an electrician. She sees him planting a bomb, so he ties her up and gags her. He leaves, hoping she will be killed in the bomb blast. However Superman rescues her intime and stops the bomb destroying the planet. He then captures Cowan.
RazkalSuperman vol 1 #15 Mar/Apr 1942The Dictator of Oxnalia who is based on Adolf Hitler, who attacks the democratic nation of Numark. Superman stops an assassination attempt on Numark’s King Boris, then saves Numark’s young Prince Micheal after he is kidnapped and taken to the castle of the treacherous Lord Murgot, who is killed. Superman then stops an attacking army as well as bringing about peace between the two nations. Razkal tries to escape, but is shot and killed by one of hs own men.
RebelloSuperboy #72 (April 1959)Superboy enemy, renegade Superboy robot, considered self more “perfect” than Superboy and sought to supplant him.
RedemptionAction Comics #848 (May 2007)Jarod Dale is able to draw power from his congregation’s faith and prayer to become an immensely powerful superhuman. However, pastor Matthews Hightower was the catalyst behind the power and subverted Redemption into killing soldiers in Africa.
RemnantSuperman: Day of Doom miniseries (2003)A villain whose identity is still a mystery. He holds Superman responsible for the tragedies that resulted from his first battle with Doomsday. Even though he looks like a supernatural wraith, Superman deduced the villain is an ordinary human with advanced illusionary technologies, that even the Man of Steel had difficulty determining whether it was real or illusions, despite his enhanced senses of sight and hearing.
the RingmasterAdventure Comics #120 (September 1947)Superboy enemy, led “Crime Circus” including Grillo, Musculo, Loop and Swoop.
RiotSuperman: The Man of Steel #61 (October 1996)Scientist Frederick Legion worked with machinery and discovered a way to duplicate himself at the cost of his ability to sleep. Driven mad by insomnia, he began a criminal career.
RockSuperman: Man of Tomorrow #8 (Spring 1997)An astronaut where after an experiment becomes a rock-like behemoth, blaming Lex Luthor for the development and coming into conflict with Superman while trying to enact revenge.
Ron-AvonSuperboy #141 (September 1967)Superboy enemy, superhuman youth from planet Belgor, forced to fight Superboy in gladiatorial combat.
SaviorAction Comics #705 (December 1994)Ramsey Murdoch believes Superman is a fake and the real Superman never recovered from his death at the hands of Doomsday. He has the ability to create any object he imagines.
the Seal GangAction Comics #231 (August 1957)Modern-day pirates whose use of a subterranean base on the supposedly deserted island Vumania was inadvertently exposed by Jimmy Olsen when he inherited the island.
the SeekerSuperman Family #191 (September–October 1978)Superboy enemy, sentient Kryptonian spacecraft, sent prior to Krypton’s destruction to locate suitable planet for relocation, attempted to terraform Earth to fit specifications.
ShadowdragonSuperman #97 (February 1995)A quasi-techno ninja, Savitar Bandu is the prince of Bhutan who worked briefly for Conduit before learning what kind of person he was and turning on him.
ShockwaveBlue Devil #2 (July 1984)A short armored criminal.
Simyan and MokkariSuperman’s Pal Jimmy Olsen #135 (January 1971)Products of the twisted genius of Dabney Donovan, they ran from him and became servants of Darkseid.
SKULLSuperman #301 (July 1976)Criminal organization of geniuses and scientists formed by the original Atomic Skull that often comes into conflict with Kobra.
SkyhookSuperman vol. 2, #15 (March 1988)Fagin-like corrupter of children who was turned into a winged demon by Blaze. His egg-like cocoons can mutate children into winged beings under his control.[10]
SleezAction Comics #592 (September 1987)An evil schemer from Apokolips.
Slug KellySuperman #5 (Summer 1940)A criminal who places rigged Slot Machines in stores to make schoolchildren lose their money, threatening some store owners. When Lois and Clark enter his hideout and won’t be bribed, he threatens to kill Clark unless Lois signs a paper saying her Editor George Taylor is Slug’s partner in the slot-machine racket, meaning nothing he printed against him would believe. He then has it taken to the Morning Pictorial. Clark becomes Superman and wrecks the building, which is set alight, but Superman escapes with the unconscious Lois and the ledger books. Taylor is angry at the false story, but Superman uses his photographic memory to remember the addresses from Slug’s secret records, after which he starts clearing Metropolis of the Slot Machines. Slug kidnaps Lois, but Superman captures Slug and dangles him overt a school building till he tells the children about the Slot Machines. Although the men confess, the police say they can’t hold them without witnesses, but hundreds of schoolchildren then pour into the station as witnesses. The connection between Taylor and Slug is disapproved during the trial. This story was a message to children to not use slot machines.
SocratesAdventure Comics #225 (June 1956)Superboy enemy, mynah bird who acquired super-powers and criminal human-level intelligence from drinking kryptonite-tainted water.
Sodom and GomorrahAction Comics #819 (November 2004)A husband-and-wife team that have the ability to fire blasts when touching each other’s hand. The blast on impact turns whatever it hits into salt.
Solar BoyAdventure Comics #269 (February 1960)Superboy enemy, super-powered alien youth who captured and sadistically mistreated Krypto until Superboy rescued him.
Space-BoyAdventure Comics #264 (September 1959)Superboy enemy, Zall-Dix, alien youth who attempted to force Superboy to exchange bodies with him.
SrakkaSuperman #398 (January 1984)An alien dybbuk who can possess the bodies of others.
StasisSuperman Family #192 (November–December 1978)Superboy enemy, able to halt biological functions in victims’ bodies, led gang in attempted takeover of Smallville.
Subjekt-17Superman #655 (October 2006)An alien family crashes in Kazakhstan, the father dead and pregnant mother taken by Russian scientists for testing. However, the female would die during this time and all that was left was the alien infant. Dubbed Subjekt-17, the infant would spend largely its entirely life imprisoned. Upon escape, unable to blend into human culture because of his appearance and angry at his treatment, he seeks revenge against Earth’s people, the similarly alien Superman becoming the focus of his ire.
the Strongarm BanditAction Comics #27 (August 1940)A masked criminal with enormous strength who starts committing crimes around the city after a circus comes to town. Herculo the circus strongman is suspected and Superman competes with him, easily defeating him. Clark is earlier robbed at the circus after buying multiple tickets for orphans, but has sprinkled a red powder on the money, meaning the criminal is caught ‘red-handed’, and is revealed to be a clown who was the former strongman, and who is arrested.
SuperwomanJustice League of America #29 (August 1964)A villainous version of Wonder Woman from a reversed version of Earth
the TalonSuperman #17 (July–August 1942)Albert Caldwell, president of Metropolis Subway Inc. and Axis fifth columnist who attempted to sabotage Metropolis’s transportation system.
Tara CobolMystery in Space #114 (December 1980)With assistant Fortran, used S.T.A.R. computer to seize control of weather satellites.
Thaddeus Killgrave[9]Superman #19 (July 1988)Mad scientist.
the Thing from 40,000 ADSuperman #87 (February 1954)Shape-changing mass of “primeval matter” banished from the year 40,000 AD, impersonated Superman and others during attempt to return to home era and conquer it.
the Thought ExplorersAdventure Comics #456 (March–April 1978)Superboy enemies, two alien researchers, used illusory attacks on Smallville to test Superboy.
TolosSuperman vol. 2, #107 (December 1995)An alien wizard that added alien beings to the Bottle City of Kandor with the ability to possess the bodies of its inhabitants.
Turlock the BerserkerNew Adventures of Superboy #49 (January 1984)Superboy enemy, extradimensional barbarian warrior, wielded burning sword, rode in chariot drawn by two two-headed dog/rat creatures.
TweedsAction Comics #26 (July 1940)Clark arrives for a date with Lois, who is making a donation to the Brentwood Rehabilitation Home. Clark tells her that the place is more interested in money than their young charges. Lois decides they should visit the home so that she can disprove Clark. After a pleasant visit, Lois and Clark are stopped by a charge, Davey Merrill, who cut his hands climbing the wall just to ask for something to eat. Once they feed him, he tells them all about the horrible conditions at the home. They return, but the barking of the guard dog Black Satan wakes up Mrs Tweed. Superman saves them from the dog, but when Davey enters the Tweeds find him, and seeing his cut hands they realise he has been over the fence and lock him in a cupboard downstairs. Lois goes back to investigate and finds records which prove the Tweeds are not spending the money on children but she is seized by the Tweeds. They tie her up, gag her, and leave her in a barred cell. Lois then hears a noise from Davey. She rubs her face against the iron bars of her cell and removes her gag. She talks to Davey. Assuming Lois has gotten into trouble, Superman rushes to the home to save her and Davey. He saves them both, and the Tweeds are arrested.
UntouchablesDC Comics Presents #58 (June 1983)Originally called the Intangibles, a trio of criminals that use technology that make themselves intangible who fought Superman, Robin, and Elongated Man. They would return modelling themselves after John DillingerClyde Barrow, andBonnie Parker and battle Hawk and Dove.
Vakox[11]Superboy #104 (April 1963)A Phantom Zone prisoner
VarxSuperboy #192 (December 1972)Superboy enemy, sole survivor of subterranean Atlantean civilization, attempted to screen Smallville from the sun, which he superstitiously feared.
VyndktvxAction Comics #1 (September 2011)An impish supervillain that is an enemy of Superman and Superman’s enemy, Mister Mxyzptlk.
the WraithNew Adventures of Superboy #21 (September 1981)Superboy enemy, spectral menace from outer space.
XasnuAction Comics #278 (July 1961)Alien plant-being, planned Earth invasion, empowered and mind-controlled Perry White as “Masterman” to battle Superman.
XenomorphAlien (1979)The Xenomorph endoparasitoid extraterrestrial species that is the primary antagonist of the Alien film series. The species made its debut in the 1979 film Alien, and reappeared in its sequels Aliens (1986), Alien 3 (1992) and Alien Resurrection(1997). The Alien has battled Superman in Superman vs. AliensSuperman/Aliens 2: God War, and Superman and Batman versus Aliens and Predator.
the XnoriansAdventure Comics #294 (March 1962)Superboy enemies, teleported Smallville students to Xnor and Xnor students to Earth in involuntary “student exchange program,” threatened to destroy Earth if Xnorian students were mistreated.
ZaoraAdventures of Superman #444 (September 1988)A Kryptonian criminal and inmate of the Phantom Zone, usually connected to General Zod. She may be a post-Crisis variant of Faora Hu-Ul (see above).
Zha-Vam[12]Action Comics #351 (June 1967)Only appearing in Action Comics #351-353, created by the gods to defeat Superman with their powers, like Hercules‘ strength, and possessing a belt that gives him other powers, like transforming into a Gorgon.
ZozzSuperboy #81 (June 1960)Superboy enemy, tyrant of planet Xenon, where most inhabitants have superhuman powers and those who do not are persecuted and exiled.

Group Villains

Group/TeamFirst appearanceDescription
Black Zero (organisation)World of Krypton (1988)A “clone liberation” movement and terrorist organisation from the planet Krypton that was ultimately responsible for the planet’s destruction.
Superman Revenge SquadAction Comics #286 (March 1962)After Superboy foiled the plans of several blue-skinned criminals from the planet Wexr II, the Wexrans banded together as the Superboy Revenge Squad and plotted against him; the group’s name changed when Superboy reached adulthood as Superman. Over the years, their membership expanded to include villains from several planets, all seeking vengeance against Superman for curtailing their criminal activities. Named members include leader Rava and Scout 627 (from Action Comics#287); Dixo and Vagu (Action Comics #295); Dorx and Krit (Action Comics #380); Dramx-One, Fwom, Jumrox, Klakok, and Nryana (Superman #366); Nakox (Superman #367); and Tydru (Superman #368).
Adventures of Superman #543 (February 1997)A group of villains, brought together by Morgan Edge with the intention of killing Superman. Their numbers in this Post-Crisis incarnation included Maxima, Barrage, Riot, Misa, Anomaly, Baud, Rock and the Parasite.
IntergangSuperman’s Pal Jimmy Olsen #133 (October 1970)An organized crime syndicate based primarily in Metropolis that uses technology provided by Darkseid.
The Invisible EmpireSuperboy #153 (January 1969)Superboy enemies, alien invaders able to disassemble their atomic structure to enter and control any objects or people, sought to possess Earth’s leaders.

Allies acting as Villains

EnemyFirst appearanceDescription
BatmanDetective Comics #27 (May 1939)As a child, Bruce Wayne watched his parents get murdered by mugger Joe Chill. Driven by this, he worked to make himself into the perfect crime fighter. He has fought Superman on occasion, most notably in the 1986 miniseries Batman: The Dark Knight Returns.
MaximaAction Comics #645 (September 1989)The princess of Almerac. She came to Earth, looking for Superman as a potential mate, but he turned her down. She has been both a friend and enemy of Superman. She died during the Our Worlds at War crossover.
VartoxSuperman #281 (November 1974)An alien superhero, who sometimes fights Superman. His powers are equivalent to Superman’s and he was once a boyfriend of Lana Lang