How to use a map and compass to navigate in the wild.

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To determine the direction, or bearing, from one point to another, you need a compass as well as a map. Most compasses are marked with the four cardinal points—north, east, south, and west—but some are marked additionally with the number of degrees in a circle (360: north is 0 or 360, east is 90, south…

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Bear dangers and how to defend yourself against a bear attack.

Brown Bear in Finland

Forget the generic bear defense tips you read on other sites. Although there are many common defense strategies, how you defend yourself against a bear attack depends on the species of bear. In addition, poor wilderness etiquette can increase bear dangers for your fellow outdoorsmen so you must be aware of the extraneous factors that…

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How to use the Sun and shadows for navigation.

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The earth’s relationship to the sun can help you to determine direction (celestial navigation). Shadows will move in the opposite direction of the sun (shadows move from west to east). There are various methods you can use to determine the time or direction using the sun and shadows.

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